CHAPTER THREE GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES ON UNIVERSITY-INDUSTRY LINKAGE AND OVERVIEW OF THESTUDY CONTEXT
This part of the thesis discusses the review of related literature from different sources. Concepts of university-industry linkage (UIL), its historical development and the rationale for university-industry linkage are included in this section. In addition to this, UIL the case from the African context and benefits accrued from forging such relationships are addressed. UIL in Africa is also challenged by different factors – low enrolment, poor quality graduates, low research output, low spending, lack of supportive policy environment, and so on. This is also the part of this section.
University-industry linkage (UIL) is operating in the political and socio-economic contexts of a given country. In this case, the political and socio-economic contexts of Ethiopia are included under this section. In addition to this, the industry sector is also briefly discussed. The education sector and its levels (primary, secondary, TVET and higher education) are briefly reviewed. Special emphasis is given to the reforms made in the Ethiopian higher education system so as to understand the changes made in higher education landscape. In this regard, attempts of expansion of higher education in the country, privatisation and cost-sharing issues are included in this part. Finally, managing UIL in the Ethiopian milieu in terms of planning, finance and curriculum are also addressed. Hence, this chapter overviewed different scholarly related literature to broaden the understanding of university-industry linkage.
CONCEPTUALISING UNIVERSITY-INDUSTRY LINKAGE
The concepts of university-industry linkage have got wide popularity with the increased roles of universities in economic development and enhanced global competitiveness in knowledge production and transfer. As it was discussed in chapter two, university-industry linkage is currently viewed from the roles of the government, university and industry perspectives. In relation to this, various literature conceptualised the issue of university-industry linkage by forging a symbiotic relationship among these three role players (Ranga & Etzkowitz, 2013: 237; Leydesdorff, 2000: 243; Etzkowitz, Dzisah, Ranga & Zhou, 2007: 14). These parties have different roles to play.
The government may help by setting regulatory frameworks, providing start-up financial benefits and resolving issues related to intellectual property (IP) rights. Similarly, universities may take initiatives to conduct problem-solving research and disseminate their research outputs to the society. In the same vein, the industry may collaboratively work with the academia by sponsoring researchable projects and establishing joint innovation centres. Other exchanges could be more frequent, ranging from providing consultancy services and sponsored research to the exchange of personnel or various forms of technology transfers (Vielba & Esquinas, 2011: 240). In fact, the partnership among the three spheres by far goes beyond the listing of simple roles of each of the parties, as their interaction will bring about more benefits to the society.
Traditionally, the central mission of universities was producing competent manpower that the economy demands through teaching and learning. Through the process, however, research was also seen as the major activity to be carried out by universities in collaboration with teaching and learning. More recently, the expectation from universities in enhancing the frontiers of knowledge to the global world has become more prominent (Bloom, Canning & Chan 2006: i; Tumuti, Wanderi & Thoruwa, 2013: 26). Their roles far go beyond the university compound, which traditionally put universities as ivory tower entities alienated from the global world.
RATIONALE FOR UNIVERSITY-INDUSTRY LINKAGES
In current information age society, numerous factors urge organisations for collaboration. Forging relationships with the government, university and industry is not an exception to this. In addition to this, the multivariate nature of problems that requires multidisciplinary approaches call for interaction, smooth flow of ideas and knowledge exchange among organisations (Burnside & Witkin, 2008: 27; Ahmed & Jumani, 2013: 201). Such an approach emphasises the interactive nature of the industrial innovation process, leading policy-makers to induce collaborations among higher education institutions and other research organisations and industry (S’a & Litwin, 2011: 425). In this regard, university-industry collaborations may take different forms at various levels of collaborations from the contract or sponsored research, to joint research, provision of professional courses and consultancy services to arranging opportunities for student placements, staff mobility and curriculum development (Ssebuwufu, et al., 2012: 11; Derbew, Mungamura & Asnake, 2015: 73; Abraham, 2016: 2). Hence, these dynamic and multifaceted activities require a strong bond of UIL.
The other pressing factors that justify the need for university-industry linkage is economic dynamism (shifting from industrial to information), change in the nature and intensity of technological development, the emergence of the competitive global market and enhanced competitiveness than ever (Bell, 1996: 322; Ahmed & Jumani, 2013: 201). The economy is changing from industrial to information, which requires adequate knowledge. Similarly, technology is changing rapidly in un-presented rate demanding a knowledge-intensive economy than labour-intensive economy. Global market also demands skilled manpower, which can create and add value to the already established knowledge and enhance competitiveness in the global arena (Walsh, et al., 2008: 39). In this regard, one of the several mechanisms through which higher education institutions/universities are reacting to this intense global competition is by including university-industry collaborations and partnerships into their plans (Tumuti, Wanderi & Thoruwa, 2013: 16).
Cognisant of its prime importance, esteemed world-class research universities are standing at the frontline in establishing such collaborations (Edmondson, Valigra, Kenward & Hudson, 2012: 3). Hence, the justifications above call for global partnership, collaboration and interaction so as to address the felt needs of the society. This is again imperative to remain competitive and viable in the global world.
UNIVERSITY-INDUSTRY LINKAGE: A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
Historically, universities and industries have been collaborating long ago. Literature on university-industry partnership divides the collaboration into revolutions. The first academic revolution goes back to the 19th century and assumed to integrate research activities totally to the academic mission of the universities (Rodrigues, 2009: 3612). It was against the ivory tower mentality of universities, which focused on the provision of knowledge. This was criticised on the ground that universities should not be alienated from the society; rather, they are expected to improve teaching and learning through research. Hence, this criticism paved the way for the revision of the roles of the universities. Accordingly, many researches proved the inseparable nature of research and teaching.
On the other hand, the second academic revolution tries to limit the relationship between the university and the society to the links of the university and the world of production, that is, to the dynamics of university-industry collaborations (Rodrigues, 2009: 3612). The restriction of university-industry linkage to the world of production has a negative effect in boosting the economic development of a given society. The partnership was again mainly limited to knowledge production and joint research works. However, the emergence of the global knowledge-economy has increased the felt demand for a strategic partnership that goes beyond the conventional funding of discrete research projects (Edmondson, et al., 2012: 3). As a result, more emphasis was again given to the transfer of knowledge than production and creation of partnerships.
The third academic revolution puts greater emphasis on the third roles of universities in technology transfer (Jurado, Lucio & Huanca, 2008: 206). In this regard, universities are expected to involve more actively in the economic development of a nation through technology transfer, particularly in an observable form of the patent licensing start-up technology transfer (Walsh, Baba, Goto & Yasaki, 2008: 39). The initiation of the third roles of universities increased in the last two decades because of ‘globalisation’ and the establishment of the ‘knowledge-economy’ which brought fresh economic, social and political and cultural challenges to which nations, regions, universities and other institutions are reacting (Cloete, Bailey, Pillay, Bunting & Maassen, 2011: 3). In relation to this, inadequate response of research universities to social problems with greater accountability is among the challenges, which the globe is required to respond. From this point of view, universities are usually seen as strategic assets in innovation and a major contributor to the economic development and also problem solvers for issues affecting their nations (Ssebuwufu, et al., 2012: 8; Abraham, 2016: 1; D’Este & Patel, 2007: 1296). This places greater responsibility and accountability on universities as they are mostly funded by the government, which in turn collected from the taxpayers.
CHAPTER ONE BACKGROUND, PROBLEM STATEMENT AND AIMS
1.1. BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
1.2. THE ETHIOPIAN CONTEXT
1.3. PROBLEM STATEMENT
1.4. AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1.5. MOTIVATION FOR THE RESEARCH
1.6. THESIS STATEMENT
1.7. DEMARCATION OF THE STUDY
1.8. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
1.10. METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
1.11. RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF RESEARCH
1.12. RESEARCH ETHICS
1.13. Operational definition of terms
1.14. CHAPTER OUTLINES
CHAPTER TWO THEORETICAL AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
2.2. UNIVERSITY-INDUSTRY LINKAGE: THE GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE
2.3. THE TRIPLE-HELIX MODEL
2.4. THE ROLE OF THE PARTIES IN THE HELIX
2.5. THE CONCEPTS OF HUMAN CAPITAL THEORY
2.6. CONCEPTS AND ORIGINS OF SYSTEMS THEORY
2.7. SYSTEM COMPONENTS
2.8. THE APPLICATION OF SYSTEM THEORY
2.9. APPLICATION OF SYSTEMS THEORY IN EDUCATION
2.10. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE STUDY
CHAPTER THREE GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES ON UNIVERSITY-INDUSTRY LINKAGE AND OVERVIEW OF THE STUDY CONTEXT
3.2 CONCEPTUALISING UNIVERSITY-INDUSTRY LINKAGE
3.3 RATIONALE FOR UNIVERSITY-INDUSTRY LINKAGES
3.4 UNIVERSITY-INDUSTRY LINKAGE: A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
3.5 UNIVERSITY-INDUSTRY LINKAGE: INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE
3.6 UNIVERSITY-INDUSTRY LINKAGE: THE AFRICAN CONTEXT
3.7 PROBLEMS RELATING TO UNIVERSITY-INDUSTRY LINKAGE IN AFRICAN UNIVERSITIES
3.8 BENEFITS OF UNIVERSITY-INDUSTRY LINKAGE
3.9. OVERVIEW OF THE ETHIOPIAN CONTEXT
CHAPTER FOUR RESEARCH PARADIGM, DESIGN, AND METHODOLOGY
4.2. RESEARCH PROBLEM
4.3. OPERATIONALISATION OF VARIABLES
4.4. RESEARCH DESIGN AND PARADIGM
4.6. METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.7. VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY OF RESEARCH
4.8. RESEARCH ETHICS
CHAPTER FIVE DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION
5.2. BIOGRAPHIC DATA
5.3. PHASE I-QUANTITATIVE RESULTS
5.4. PHASE II- QUALITATIVE FINDINGS
5.5. INTERPRETATION OF QUALITATIVE DATA
5.6. CONCLUSION OF THE QUALITATIVE DATA
5.7. INTEGRATION OF PHASE I AND II
5.8. DISCUSSION OF QUANTITATIVE RESULTS AND QUALITATIVEFINDINGS
5.9. MODEL DEVELOPMENT
CHAPTER SIX SUMMARY OF THE RESEARCH, FINAL CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
6.2. SUMMARY OF LITERATURE RESEARCH
6.3. SUMMARY OF EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION
6.4. KEY FINDINGS
6.5. RECOMMENDATION FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF PRACTICES
6.6. AREAS OF FURTHER RESEARCH
6.7. LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
6.8. CONCLUDING REMARKS
GET THE COMPLETE PROJECT
MANAGING UNIVERSITY-INDUSTRY LINKAGE IN GOVERNMENT UNIVERSITIES OF ETHIOPIA: CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES