Higher Education Bill (Department of Education, 1997)

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Chapter 2 Literature review

However, various authors (Campbell, 1971; Camp, Blanchard & Huszczo, 1986; Lathan, 1988; Goldstein & Associates, 1989) express dissatisfaction with the theoretical foundation of and conflict among the practitioners on the development of training. Camp, Blanchard & Huszczo (1986) express specific concerns relating to the lack of solid research on the development of theory on training and development interventions and the uneven amount of attention practitioners and students give to training events.
Furthermore, the disproportionate amount of attention and time allocated to the training and development processes and environment integral and essential to the use of the leaming environment is cause for concern. Attention has been focused primarily on the development of SUbprocesses explaining the steps involved in training activities, such as training needs assessment, identifying instructional methods and evaluation processes (Annett, 1968; Nadler, 1984; Bushnel, 1990; Erickson, 1990; Brinkerhoff, 1991; Hequet, 1996; Phillips, 1996).
In addition, the accelerated pace of change in technology, for example using multimedia applications and the Intemet to provide sufficient learning interventions, does not allow for attention to be given to the development of theory relating to models and systems. Many authors and researchers have called for more focused research on the development of process models in the learning environment as a whole (Camp, Blanchard & Huszczo, 1986; Latham, 1988; Goldstein & Associates, 1989; Patrick, 1992).
In order to address this issue, the literature review focuses on the subsidiary research question: How closely is the learning environment aligned with national and organisational policy requirements?
National and organisational alignment;legal requirements;organisational alignment; and learning organisations and organisational learn
The focus on the above items will demarcate the boundaries within which the research in relation to national and organisational alignment took place. The focus areas are all inter-linked and dependent on one another and cannot be treated as separate issues.

International and national alignment

Education in South Africa; and ,Systems of educational As practitioners,  we need to understand  that what occurs over the next few years is a segment of a much broader chronology (Sadler, 1996).In the light of this broader perspective,  the training and development function will require re-engineering.A rapidly growing global economy generating new organisational realities will require rethinking and changing of the critical mindsets that impact on the training and development         efforts to re-engineer the training function.This mindset implies a mutual perception by the individual and the organisation  of the business practices of the organisation. The international  alignment  generates  new organisational realities (Sadler,1996):
World standards for systems, products and services are now required to document the quality of training and development interventions. Leaders must be developed to meet the changing, emerging and increasingly complex conditions of the international training and development environment (Schein, 1978). These leaders and professionals need to shift from a narrow and restricted mindset to a global organisational mindset. In addition, to be successful internationally, organisations must gain a competitive edge through the use of strategic training and the development of workforce management (Sadler, 1996; Rothwell & Kazanas, 1994a).

Education in South Africa

South Africa’s first national education system came into being with the establishment of the Union of South Africa in 1910. Control of education was shared between the new Union government and the provincial administrators (Buckland & De Wee, 1996). It is evident from Table 2.2 that the education system in South Africa has been transformed a number of times to accommodate the changes in the country
As shown in Table 2.2, the various educational eras were shaped by different initiatives, with a wide range of proposals, recommendations and shifts of power from and to government and local or regional authorities. During the apartheid years, the focus shifted to arguments for and against the provision of racially specific education. The interim constitution in 1994 essentially revived the 1910 compromise giving control of education to the provinces (Buckland & De Wee, 1996). Education authorities recently displayed renewed interest in local involvement in education by government through local taxation and educational levies. The view is also held that local control could facilitate more equitable and cost-effective use of expensive resources.
According to the constitutional division of powers in Canada, education is a provincial responsibility. Both Ontario and Quebec delegate the authority to school boards and to a lesser extent to other bodies. The stakeholders in education participate to determine the educational direction of Canada, but with no authority to the students and with little input on their part in the educational system (Smith, 1996).


Education in Chile

The Chilean education system moved from a highly centralised and state-regulated system in the 1980s to one that is decentralised and more locally controlled. Decentralisation in Chile has been a continuous process marked by two distinct periods, each reflecting the interests of the government of that time (Hoffman, 1996).

Education in England and Wales

The education system in England and Wales has been subject to a radical reform programme following the 1988 Education Reform Act, and cannot be described as either centralised or decentralised. Responsibilities are being transferred mainly to individual institutions or to central government. Government policies are implemented through new non-departmental public bodies referred to as quangos (quasi-autonomous non-governmentalorganisations). The reform legislation entails a delicate balance between the national education department and the concerns of the local education authorities (Welton, 1996).
Prior to independence, the focus in Zimbabwe was mainly on the education of whites. After independence Zimbabwe was divided into ten provinces, with a resident minister at the head of each province. Currently, the education system is operated by two main bodies at provincial level: the provincial council and the provincial development committee. These two bodies serve the rural district councils, providing developmental initiatives and generating and implementing policy (Rukanda & Chikombah, 1996).

Higher Education Bill (Department of Education, 1997)

The purpose of the Higher Education Bill (South Africa, 1997b) is to provide for the establishment of a single, co-ordinated and integrated higher education system for South Africa, but encouraging distinct diversity within the system. There should be optimisation and maximum utilisation of all resources involved in higher education. In addition, the Bill provides the framework for programme-based education with the necessary qualifications framework for certification purposes and assessment to support the Act. The Bill defines higher education as « any learning programme of a level higher than grade 12 or its equivalent » (South Africa, 1997b: 5).

A programme for the transformation of higher education (Department of Education, 1997)

The challenge faced by the education department to redress the past inequalities and initiate transformation will require the outlining of a comprehensive set of initiatives to establish the single co-ordinated system that is required, and without the co-operation of the key stakeholders within South Africa this will not become a reality. In the current environment in South Africa, the process of social transformation must be supported to enable it to become people-driven and to lead to a better quality of life for all. The 1997 White Paper on a Programme for the Transformation of Higher Education (South Africa, 1997d) describes what is needed to achieve an improvement in quality of life: Previously identified elements requiring reform evident from the White Paper on a Programme for the Transformation of Higher Education (South Africa, 1997d) include inequitable access and opportunities for learners and staff according to race, gender, class and demographics. This includes the mismatch between the output of higher education and the needs of a rapidly revitalising economy. A major issue for concern is the govemance of higher education at a systems level that is characterised by fragmentation, inefficiency and ineffectiveness, with too little co-ordination, few common goals and negligible systematic planning. Despite these negative factors, some higher education institutions have developed internationally competitive research and teaching capacities (South Africa, 1997d).


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