CHAPTER THREE BACKGROUND TO TERTIARY EDUCATION IN GHANA AND THE THREE SELECTED UNIVERSITIES
Chapter Two of this study reviewed the literature on the knowledge pyramid, KM, KM systems, KM strategy and framework, implementing KM and KM in universities. This chapter discusses the background and profile of tertiary education in Ghana and the three universities that were selected for this study: University of Ghana, Legon; University of Professional Studies, Accra; and Ghana Technology University College, Ghana. The purpose of this chapter is to present historical background of tertiary education in Ghana and the selected universities: academics; mission and vision statements; and staff and students population. It also presents the partnership and collaborations they have with other universities and institutions of higher learning.
Tertiary Education in Ghana
Tertiary or higher education in Ghana usually refers to universities, colleges, polytechnics and post-secondary specialised educational institutions such as the military and police academy, technical and vocational training centres and so on. Admission into these institutions generally begins after the successful completion of senior secondary/higher education. The tertiary educational institutions perform the functions of teaching, training, research and services. Each institution’s programmes of study attempt to translate these core missions into achievable goals for its students (NAB, 2015).
The National Accreditation Board (NAB) of Ghana is an agency of the Government of Ghana, resorts under the Ministry of Education and is responsible, among other things, for the accreditation of both public and private institutions with regard to contents and standards of their programmes and for determining, in consultation with the appropriate institutions or body, the programme and requirements for the proper operation of their institution and the maintenance of acceptable levels of academic or professional standards. It is also responsible for the determination of equivalences of diplomas, certificates and other qualifications awarded in Ghana and elsewhere (NAB, 2015). NAB (2015) categorises tertiary institutions into the following:
- A university: An educational institution designed for advanced instruction and research in several branches of learning, conferring degrees in various faculties and often embodying colleges, schools and similar institutions.
- University college: An institution of higher learning that is affiliated to a university and that offers instructions based on programmes approved by the university to which it is affiliated and whose degrees/diplomas/certificates are awarded by the parent university.
- Polytechnics: An institution of higher or further education in which courses in a large range of subjects, especially those of a technical or vocational kind are available.
- College: An establishment for further or higher education in the liberal arts (Pure Science/Humanities) or professional studies, sometimes, part of a university, e.g. business college, college of music, naval college.
- School: An educational institution devoted to a special branch of higher education, e.g. school of education, school of economics, school of medicine, school of law.
- Institute: An establishment offering advanced courses in the professions, or the arts, or science and technology.
- Academy: A place of study or training in a special field, e.g. military academy, academy of dance, maritime academy.
- Tutorial college: An institution that prepares students to take the examinations of a university or a recognised professional body.
Currently (2016), there are eight public universities, 10 professional public universities, one regional university, three chartered private universities and 51 university colleges affiliated to the public/government universities in Ghana and/or outside Ghana. Additionally, there are 10 polytechnics, 38 colleges of education, 66 colleges of health, 15 professional colleges, 11 tutorial colleges, two distance-learning centres, 11 foreign universities and other specialised institutions such as the Ghana Police Command and Staff College (GPCSC), Ghana Armed Forces Command and Staff College (GAFCSC) and so on. Every year, these tertiary institutions enrol over 100,000 students in undergraduate, post-graduate, certificate and diploma programmes in the full range of academic and professional fields (NAB, 2015). The brief profiles of the selected universities under study are:
- University of Ghana, Legon
- University of Professional Studies, Accra (UPSA),
- Ghana Technology University College (GTUC).
University of Ghana, Legon
The University of Ghana (UG), Legon, is the oldest and largest of all Ghanaian universities and tertiary institutions. It was founded as the University College of the Gold Coast by Ordinance on 11th August 1948, based on the recommendation by the Asquith Commission on Higher Education in the then British colonies for the purpose of providing and promoting university education, learning and research. It was originally an affiliate College of the University of London, which supervised its academic programmes and awarded degrees (Daniel, 1996).
The University College of the Gold Coast gained full university status on 1st October 1961. Dr Kwame Nkrumah (First President of the Republic of Ghana) became the first chancellor of the university, with Nana Kobina Nketsia IV (BLitt DPhil, Oxon; Omanhene of Essikado) as the interim vice-chancellor (University of Ghana History, 2015).
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY
1.2 Background to the Study
1.3 Statement of the Problem
1.4 Purpose of the Study
1.5 Objectives of the Study
1.6 Research Questions
1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study
1.8 Literature Review
1.9 Definition of Key Terms and Concepts .
1.10 Originality of Study
1.11 Research Methodology
1.13 Significance of the Study
1.14 Outline of the Study
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW
2.2 Literature Review
2.3 Knowledge Pyramid
2.4 Knowledge Management
2.5 Knowledge Management Systems
2.6 Knowledge Management Processes
2.7 Knowledge Management Enablers: Critical Success Factors
2.8 Knowledge Management Strategies
2.9 Knowledge Management Frameworks
2.10 Knowledge Management in Universties
2.11 Implementing a Knowledge Management System
2.12 Chapter Summary
CHAPTER THREE, BACKGROUND TO TERTIARY EDUCATION IN GHANA AND THE THREE SELECTED UNIVERSITIES
3.2 Tertiary Education in Ghana
3.3 University of Ghana, Legon
3.4 University of Professional Studies, Accra
3.5 Ghana Technology University College (GTUC)
CHAPTER FOUR RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
4.2 Research Approach
4.5 Population and Sampling
4.6 Validity and Reliability of the Research Findings
4.7 Ethical Consideration
4.8 Summary of Chapter Four .
CHAPTER FIVE DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
5.2 Presentation of Survey Findings
5.3 Presentation of Qualitative Findings
CHAPTER SIX INTERPRETATION AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
6.2 Demographic Profile of Respondents
6.3 Types of Knowledge
6.4 Knowledge Management Processes
6.5 Systems/Facilities that Facilitate Knowledge Management
6.6 Strategies for Safeguarding Knowledge
6.7 Assessing the Impact of Knowledge Management Systems
6.8 Success Factors and Inhibitors of Knowledge Management Systems
6.9 Chapter Summary
CHAPTER SEVEN SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
7.4 Implications of the Findings
7.6 Overall Conclusions on the Research Problem
LIST OF REFERENCES
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ASSESSING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS IMPLEMENTATION IN GHANAIAN UNIVERSITIES