INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS APPLICABLE TO FOOD SECURITY IN SOUTH AFRICA

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INTRODUCTION

The right to access to adequate food is universally regarded as a basic human right as reflected in the United Nations Declaration on Human Rights, the 1996 Rome Declaration on World Food Security and the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals to be achieved by 2030. Countries have committed themselves to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger by half and to develop strategies to address food security nationally, regionally and globally. Goal Two of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is to end hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture. South Africa has, by becoming a signatory to the Universal Declaration on Human Rights, the Rome Declaration on World Food Security and the Sustainable Development Goals, committed itself to find ways and opportunities to achieve and promote the attainment of food security. According to the Food and Agricultural Organisation, World Food Programme and International Fund for Agricultural Development (2015:12), 795 million people in the world were undernourished in the period 2014-2016. In 2015, the progress towards the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the World Food Security (WFS) targets were assessed, and the results reveal that Sub Saharan Africa remains the region with the highest prevailing rates of hunger in the world (Food and Agricultural Organisation et al. 2014).

Food availability

Food availability is regarded as the effective and continuous supply of food at both the national and household level (Integrated Food Security Strategy 2002). The National Development Agency (2013:3) identifies food availability as the production and procurement of adequate, sufficient measures of food available on a continuous basis. Food availability is affected by market conditions and the production activities of the agricultural sector. The agricultural sector is a key sector contributing to the availability of food in South Africa, both for individuals and households. Family farming is an essential method of reducing poverty and hunger. Globally a high number of the poor live in rural areas and family farming is predominant. Through engaging in family farming and smallholder agriculture, land and labour productivity increases and has positive effects on the livelihoods of the poor by increasing food availability and increasing family income. 90% of the 570 million farms worldwide are managed by an individual or a family which produce 80% of the world’s food (Food and Agricultural Organisation et al. 2015). It is of importance for public policies to identify the range of the challenges faced by family farms that are required to ensure food security. There is a link between availability of food and access to food. Farmers, through food production, can consequently gain more income and promote access and availability.

Food utilisation

The third pillar of food security is food utilisation. Food utilisation refers to “the appropriate use based on knowledge of basic nutrition and care, as well as adequate water and sanitation” (Du Toit 2011:2). Food utilisation is thus the final use of food by households and individuals. It is important for individuals to use food for their nutritional wellbeing, and the preparation of food must provide the maximum nutrients. Two key factors influence food utilisation; dietary diversity and food preservation and utilisation. According to the National Policy on Food and Nutrition Security, a diverse diet is essential to the realisation of food and nutrition security, since diverse diets are more inclined to be richer in micro and macro nutrients. The consequences are high levels of micro-nutrient deficiency induced diseases in South Africa, arising from insufficient Vitamin A and zinc, and manifesting as anemia. The Department of Health (DOH) established the food fortification of maize meal and wheat flour with the aim of addressing deficiencies of micronutrients including iron, zinc, Vitamin A, folic acid, thiamin and riboflavin (Republic of South Africa 2013:9).

Stability of food supply

The fourth pillar of food security in South Africa is the stability of food supply. The supply of food in South Africa is impacted on by natural, market, political and economic conditions. The multiple pillars of food security necessitate a multidimensional and multisectoral approach to policy implementation, as each pillar of food security is addressed by various government programmes. These programmes include school feeding, programmes for social relief and distress, support for smallholder and subsistence farmers, Community Works Development Programmes and Expanded Public Works Programmes. The multisectoral and multidimensional nature of food security is evident in the diverse programmes aimed at addressing each of the four pillars. It is of significance to this research to highlight that this is not an exhaustive discussion on the multisectoral programmes and strategies in place in order to promote the attainment of the right to sufficient access to food provided by government. The Food and Agricultural Organisation et al. (2014:44) estimate that the agricultural sector absorbs approximately 22% of affecting the capacity of the sector to support food security. Climate change increases the risks of natural disasters by altering rainfall and the temperatures, as well as extreme events such as drought and flooding. The DSD as well as the DAFF, the DBE and the DTI will be investigated. The rationale for the selection of these specific departments is on the basis that these government departments are directly responsible for food security programmes in keeping with the definition of food security to provide food to all people at all times. Schedule 4 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996, outlines functional areas of national and provincial responsibility.

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The institutional arrangements for the Integrated Food Security

Strategy The Integrated Food Security Strategy, 2002, was introduced as a result of the different government programmes that had been implemented since 1994, in order to redress the imbalances of the apartheid system. These programmes include school feeding schemes, child grants, disability grants, foster care grants, free health care services for children, and community public works programmes. In the implementation of the Integrated Food Security Strategy, 2002, numerous challenges were encountered in ensuring the harmonisation and coordination amongst multiple sector departments. This has been attributed largely to the fact that food security is multi-faceted and cannot be the responsibility of the agricultural sector only. Some of the challenges identified that hampered the effectiveness of the IFSS include the fact that most departments do not have a specific directorate tasked with food security.

TABLE OF CONTENTS :

  • List of tables
  • List of figures
  • List of abbreviations
  • Abstract
  • CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
    • 1.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 1.2 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
    • 1.2.1 Food availability
    • 1.2.2 Food access
    • 1.2.3 Food utilisation
    • 1.2.4 Stability of food supply
    • 1.3 INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS APPLICABLE TO FOOD SECURITY IN SOUTH AFRICA
    • 1.3.1 The institutional arrangements for the Integrated Food Security Strategy
    • 1.3.2 The institutional arrangements for the National Policy on Food and Nutrition Security and the Fetsa Tlala Production Initiative
    • 1.3.3 A centralised food control system
    • 1.4 MOTIVATION FOR THE RESEARCH
    • 1.5 PROBLEM STATEMENT
    • 1.5.1 Research question
    • 1.5.2 Research objectives
    • 1.5.3 The significance of the research
    • 1.5.4 Limitations of the study
    • 1.6 RESEARCH METHODS
    • 1.6.1 Research design
    • 1.6.2 Data gathering techniques
    • 1.6.3 Research population
    • 1.6.4 Ethical considerations in research
    • 1.7 CLARIFICATION OF CONCEPTS AND TERMS
    • 1.7.1 Public Administration and public administration
    • 1.7.2 Public policy
    • 1.7.3 Public policy analysis
    • 1.7.4 Multisectoral
    • 1.7.5 Civil society
    • 1.8 Overview of chapters
      • 1.9 CONCLUSION
  • CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
    • 2.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 2.2 THE NATURE OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
    • 2.2.1 The ‘public’ in Public Administration
    • 2.2.2 The concept of administration in Public Administration
    • 2.3 The EVOLUTION OF THE DISCIPLINE OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
    • 2.4 THE CORE FUNCTIONS OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
    • 2.4.1 Human capital management
    • 2.4.2 Public financial management
    • 2.4.3 Control
    • 2.4.4 Organising
    • 2.4.5 Work procedures and methods
    • 2.5 THE DEVELOPMENT OF PUBLIC POLICY IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
    • 2.5.1 Public policy making
    • 2.5.2 The public policy-making process
    • 2.5.3 Public policy analysis
    • 2.5.4 Role-players in public policy
    • 2.6 CONCLUSION
  • CHAPTER 3: THE REGULATORY FRAMEWORK APPLICABLE TO FOOD
    • SECURITY IN SOUTH AFRICA
    • 3.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 3.2 FOOD SECURITY AND THE RIGHT TO ADEQUATE FOOD
    • 3.2.1 Food access and food utilisation
    • 3.2.2 Food availability
    • 3.2.3 Stability of food supply
    • 3.4 CONCLUSION
  • CHAPTER 4: INTERNATIONAL BEST PRACTICE FOR MULTISECTORAL PUBLIC POLICY COORDINATION FOR FOOD SECURITY
    • 4.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 4.2 THE STATE OF FOOD SECURITY: AN INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE
    • 4.3 THE RATIONALE FOR THE SELECTION OF INTERNATIONAL BEST PRACTICES
    • 4.4 THE FOOD SECURITY POLICY CONTEXT IN BRAZIL
    • 4.4.1 The right to access to adequate food in Brazil
    • 4.4.2 The Zero Hunger (Fome Zero) Strategy and Brazil without Poverty Plan
    • 4.4.3 The Brazil without Extreme Poverty Plan
    • 4.4.4 The multisectoral coordination of food security policies in Brazil
    • 4.5 THE FOOD SECURITY POLICY CONTEXT IN ETHIOPIA
    • 4.5.1 The legislative framework applicable to the right to access to adequate food in Ethiopia
    • 4.5.2 THE NATIONAL NUTRITION STRATEGY IN ETHIOPIA
    • 4.5.3 The multisectoral coordination of policies applicable to food security in Ethiopia
    • 4.6 LESSONS FROM INTERNATIONAL BEST PRACTICE
    • 4.7 CONCLUSION
  • CHAPTER 5: AN ANALYSIS OF THE PUBLIC POLICY CONTEXT FOR FOOD SECURITY IN SOUTH AFRICA
    • 5.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 5.2 BACKGROUND TO THE CASE STUDY
    • 5.2.1 The missions, visions and strategic objectives of the national departments
    • 5.2.2 Organisational structure
    • 5.3 PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE RESEARCH RESULTS
    • 5.3.1 The multisectoral platforms for food and nutrition security Policy implementation
    • 5.4 MONITORING AND EVALUATION OF FOOD SECURITY IN SOUTH AFRICA
    • 5.5 CONCLUSION
  • CHAPTER 6: A MULTISECTORAL PUBLIC POLICY FRAMEWORK FOR FOOD SECURITY IN SOUTH AFRICA
    • 6.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 6.2 SUMMARY OF THE PRECEDING CHAPTERS
    • 6.3 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF A MULTISECTORAL PUBLIC POLICY FRAMEWORK FOR FOOD SECURITY IN SOUTH AFRICA
    • 6.4 A MULTISECTORAL PUBLIC POLICY FRAMEWORK FOR FOOD SECURITY IN SOUTH AFRICA
    • 6.4.1 The key elements of a multisectoral public policy framework emanating from the empirical research
    • 6.5 SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
    • 6.6 CONCLUSION

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A multisectoral public policy framework for food security in South Africa

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