IDENTIFICATION OF THE RESEARCH THEME
History is replete with numerous examples of violent and unconstitutional methods to change governments. These can be an uprising or a “spontaneous explosion of popular will” as occurred in the French and Iranian Revolutions of 1789 and 1979 respectively, or through an insurgency or “a struggle for power (over political space) between a state (or occupying power) and one or more organized, popularly based internal challengers” (United States Army, 2007:2; McCormick et al, 2007:3).
Insurgencies and mass uprisings have been recorded as early as 558-486 BC during the reign of King Darius of Persia and those reported in 356-323 BC under Alexander the Great (Hammes, 2005:3). These phenomena have received the attention of scholars and researchers over the years as indicated by the extent of the literature on the subjects.
The concepts have also been referred to, interchangeably, as irregular or guerrilla warfare, limited war, rebel movements, low intensity conflict, internal wars and revolutionary or civil wars (Hough, 2005:2; Snyder and Malik, 1999:199; Snow, 1996:65- 66). Invariably, the meanings show similarities depending on the level of involvement of the population; the extent of violence employed, and recognition of the belligerents by the government.
Although every mass uprising or insurgency is unique in time and space, the concepts have been broadly generalized based on motivation, political orientation, timelines, rate of escalation and level of violence exploited by such movements (Clapham, 1998(b):7-8; Wilkinson, 1986:31-32; Snow, 1996:49; Sarkesian, 1975). Consequently, the forms and categorizations of insurgencies have ranged from “people’s war” or liberation wars to wars of self-determination in China, South Eastern Asia, Africa, Latin and Central America; urban insurgencies in Russia and Iran; and foco (armed insurgent band forming the nucleus of a revolution) in Cuba (Clapham, 1998(b):3; Lynn, 2005:22; Metz, 1993:2; Kilkullen, 2006-07:111-113; Guevara, 1961). Besides, the concepts have also been applied extensively to some armed conflicts in Africa, particularly to separatist movements and the conflicts relating to natural resources. Thus, insurgencies or revolutionary wars have variously been categorized as nationalist, separatist, reform, warlord; spiritual, criminal or resource-based (Clapham, 1998(b):3; Cilliers, 2000:4; Galula, 1964:3; Beckett, 2005:1). These have also been classified as classical or modern depending on the objective or motive, organizational strategy, base and origins of the movement (Kruys, 2005:30-36; Kilkullen, 2006-07; Metz, 1993:1-4).
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1. IDENTIFICATION OF THE RESEARCH THEME
2. RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
3. LITERATURE REVIEW
4. FORMULATION AND DEMARCATION OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
5. METHODOLOGY AND SOURCES
CHAPTER TWO: MASS UPRISINGS, INSURGENCIES AND RELATED TERMS: A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
2. DEFINITION OF CONCEPTS
2.2 MASS UPRISING
2.4 RELATED CONCEPTS
3. VIOLENCE ESCALATION LADDER
4. A TYPOLOGY OF INSURGENCIES
4.1 FORMS OF INSURGENCY
4.2 GOALS .
4.4 STRATEGY OF WARFARE
4.7 EXTERNAL SUPPORT
5. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MASS UPRISINGS AND INSURGENCIES
6. CAUSES OF MASS UPRISINGS AND INSURGENCIES .
CHAPTER THREE: INTERNATIONAL INVOLVEMENT AND MILITARY INTERVENTION IN DOMESTIC CONFLICTS .
2. DEFINITION OF CONCEPTS
3. MECHANISMS OF MULTILATERAL INTERVENTION
4. OUTCOMES OF INTERVENTION
5. INTERVENTION IN AFRICA
6. CONCLUSION .
CHAPTER FOUR: OVERVIEW OF INSURGENCIES IN AFRICA IN THE POST-COLD WAR PERIOD
2. INSURGENCIES IN AFRICA DURING THE COLD WAR
3. THE POST-COLD WAR INSURGENCIES
4. CRIMINAL INSURGENCIES
CHAPTER FIVE: MASS UPRISINGS IN TUNISIA AND EGYPT
CHAPTER SIX: MASS UPRISING AND INSURGENCY IN LIBYA
CHAPTER SEVEN: INTERNATIONAL RESPONSES TO THE UPRISINGS AND INSURGENCIES