CHAPTER 3 LITERATURE REVIEW
In this chapter, the report provides an exposition of key features of the topic, its significance and areas of debate based on the work of other scholars. According to Mouton (2000), literature review can be organized by date (chronologically), theme, hypothesis, case study or method. The researcher chose to organize the chapter by theme to illustrate the relationship between these themes as building blocks of the study and to interrogate the relationship between research questions.
The definition of leadership is a complex and diverse phenomenon involving the leader, the follower and the situation. Leadership is also reliant on the environmental and intra-organisational conditions that influence leaders’ situation and further seeks to produce institutional change by developing a vision of the future and strategies, communicating and clarifying the vision and motivating and inspiring people to attain the vision (Yukl, 2006).
There has been extensive studies and analysis on leadership particularly from the west. As a result, major Leadership Paradigms have been developed which include: Trait Paradigm, Behavioural Paradigm (R. Likert 1967, Blake 1991 and Mouton 1964, House 1971), Situational/Contingency Leadership Paradigm (e.g. Hersey 1997 & Blanchard 1969, Fiedler 1964, Goleman 2000), Transformational and Neo-Charismatic Leadership Paradigm (Bass 1985 & Avolio 1999, Bennis 1985, Collins 2001), Ethical Leadership (Greenleaf 1970, Covey 1970, Heifetz 1994,), Spiritual Leadership (Moxley 1994), Shared Leadership (Pearce, Manz 1994) and Authentic Leadership (Gardener, Avolio 1999). These paradigms are briefly summarized below:
Trait Paradigm: this theory implies that leadership effectiveness resides in the attributes and characteristics of the individual like ‘TREAT MAN THEORY’ which stipulates that to be a leader one must posses’ good characteristics.
Behavioural Paradigm: this theory arose from the ruins of the “trait” paradigm that leadership effectiveness rests in the “behaviour” of the leader as opposed to “traits or personality” and “Leadership is what you do not what you are.” According to the theory, there are two types of leader behaviours: task behaviours and relationship behaviours defined by Ohio State Studies and University of Michigan Studies. The major proponents are: (Stogdill, 1974; Likert, 1967; Blake & Mouton, 1964; Graen & Uhl-Bien, 1995).
Situational/Contingency Leadership Paradigm: Leadership behaviour is two-dimensional (task behaviour and relationship behaviour). The best style of leadership depends on the situation. The important variables in the situation include: the leader, follower readiness, nature of the task. Effective leaders will have a full range of behavioural styles. The major proponents of this theory are: (Hersey & Blanchard, 1969; Fiedler, 1964; House, 1971; Goleman,2000; Goleman, Boyatzis and McKee, 2001).
Transformational and Neo-Charismatic Leadership Paradigm:Transformational leadership moves followers to accomplish more than what is usually expected of them. They become motivated to transcend their own self-interests for the good of the group or organization. This theory is part of a variety of Theories falling under “Neocharismatic Theory”, the Neo-charismatic Theory includes Transformational Leadership Theory (Burns 1978, Bass 1999, Avolio 1993), Visionary Theories (Kouzes and Posner 1987), Level 5 Leadership Theory (Collins 2001), and Primal Leadership Theory (Goleman 2000). All attempt to explain how leadership can lead to outstanding accomplishments by followers; the emphasis is on symbolic and emotionally appealing leader behaviours. Every leader displays each style to some degree. Transactional (compensatory) styles can be reasonably effective depending on the situation and Transformational leadership augments follower performance.
The definition of a leader in the African context seems to differ from Yukl’s western definition and perspective of leadership. A leader in the African context has defining features of probity, humility, integrity, compassion and humanity. What is more intriguing is the intimation that African leadership is shaped by religious, tribal, social, ideological, ecological, economical and political diversity that characterizes much of Africa’s politics. The emphasis on leadership is Ubuntu – the principle that “I am because you are; you are because we are which is a universal idea however it has been emphasis more in Africa (Khoza, 2002).
In seeking to outline the characteristics and style of the leader, Khoza sites Warren Bennis who advice leaders to: I) be innovative, II) develop followers, III) focus on people, IV) inspire trust, V) have a long-range perspective and do the right thing. This is what is expected from South African leaders. Maxwell (2004), as cites by Botha (2005), identifies 4 pillars of leadership which include relationship; equipping; attitude and leadership. Relationship in Maxwell view is in agreement with Khaza and Bennis sentiments as they include focus on people (shared experiences) trust and respect.
The characteristics of leadership are further discerned and classified according to the trait, the behaviour, the power-influence, the situational and the integrative approach. These approaches are not exhaustive but, they provide a sufficient basis on how the leadership theory and research has evolved (Yukl, 2006).
LEADERSHIP STYLE IN LOCAL GOVERNMENT
In local government, the servant and transformational leadership styles are more relevant. Servant Leadership however emerged more strongly in the 1990’s and not many studies have been done so far to test them. These theories suggest different and interesting ways of looking at leadership. The researchers such as (Laub, 1999) as sited by (Joseph & Winston, 2006) emphasis trust, fairness and ethical behaviours playing a key role in a leader. This role is also a characteristic given to a South African leader. This is evidenced by protest that emanates from unfulfilled promises and alleged corruption levelled against local government officials.
The local government leadership in South Africa is political and the administration is also perceived to be politically appointed or deployed by respective political parties that won the local government election. It is on the above bases that De Visser et al (2009) and Lawless et al (2007) call for leadership and administration of local government should be driven by service delivery and the business of local government should not be coupled with politics. Both structures should be visionary leaders with a successful track record in running organisations and should be afforded more autonomy in terms of selecting senior staff and managing the administration.
TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP PARADIGM
Transformation emerges from change theories. According to Sithole (2005), transformation can be defined as moving from one state to another, specifically from the problem state to the solved state. It is the process of continually renewing an organisation’s direction, structure, and capabilities to serve the ever-changing needs of external and internal customers particularly in local government.
This paradigm requires that leadership move followers to accomplish more than what is usually expected of them. The leaders are expected to become motivated and to transcend their own self-interests for the good of the group or organization. This theory is part of a genre of Theories falling under “Neocharismatic Theory”, the Neo-charismatic Theory includes Transformational Leadership Theory (Burns 1978, Bass 1999, Avolio 1993), Visionary Theories (Kouzes and Posner 1987), and Level 5 Leadership Theory (Collins, 2001 and Primal Leadership Theory (Goleman, 2000) All attempt to explain how leadership can lead to outstanding accomplishments by followers; the emphasis is on symbolic and emotionally appealing leadership behaviours.
CHAPTER 1 BACKGROUND TO THE CORE PROBLEM
1.2 OVERVIEW ON LAWS GOVERNING WOMEN
1.3 BACKGROUND ON LOCAL GOVERNMENT
1.4 STUDIES ON WOMEN IN LOCAL GOVERNMENT
1.5 BACKGROUND TO PROBLEM STATEMENT
1.6 GAUTENG PROVINCE IN RELATION TO THE STUDY
1.7 PROBLEM STATEMENT
1.8 BACKGROUND TO RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
1.9 ASSUMPTIONS OF THE STUDY
1.10 THE DELIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
1.11 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE RESEARCH STUDY
1.12 LAYOUT OF THE REPORT
CHAPTER 2 THE FOUNDATION OF THE STUDY
2.2 LOCAL GOVERNMENT AS AN INSTITUTION
2.3 STAKEHOLDER MANAGEMENT AT MICRO LEVEL
CHAPTER 3 LITERATURE REVIEW
3.3 LEADERSHIP STYLE IN LOCAL GOVERNMENT
3.4 WOMEN LEADERSHIP IN LOCAL GOVERNMENT
CHAPTER 4 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
4.2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND DESIGN
4.3 RESEARCH INSTRUMENT
4.5 SAMPLING FRAME
4.6 DATA COLLECTION
4.7 SELECTION OF PARTICIPANTS
4.8 DATA ANALYSIS
4.9 VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY OF THE STUDY
4.10 ETHICS OF THE STUDY
CHAPTER 5 DATA ANALYSIS AND RESEARCH FINDINGS
5.2 SELECTION OF PARTICIPANT
5.3 BACKGROUND OF PARTICIPANTS
5.4 BARRIERS AFFECTING WOMEN IN LOCAL GOVERNMENT
5.5 SUPPORT PROVIDED TO WOMEN IN LOCAL GOVERNMENT
5.6 LESSONS LEARNED FROM SUPPORT PROVIDED TO WOMEN
CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
6.2 BACKGROUND TO THE CONCLUSIONS
6.3 THE OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
6.4 THE MAIN OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
GET THE COMPLETE PROJECT
Women leadership in Local Government: An assessment of support by key stakeholders