CHAPTER 3 IN-SERVICE EDUCATION AND TRAINING AS A MEANS TO IMPROVE TRAINERS’ PROFESSIONALISM
The previous chapter is critical to the study as it provided the theoretical and conceptual framework to describe the fundamental concepts. This chapter provides a discussion of the aims, objectives and significance of In-Service Education and Training (INSET) and the different approaches utilised to provide training to trainers with specific reference to the South African Police Service (SAPS). In addition, this chapter gives an overview of INSET as it is currently provided to trainers in South Africa.
Police education, training and development are continuously evaluated and assessed to keep track of new political, social and economic changes globally. “Police education and training systems across the globe are in the process of transition (Paterson, 2011:1). In the SAPS, initial training as referred to by Udrea (2014) is defined as an opportunity granted to employees of an organisation to obtain a qualification that could enable them to perform a specific job or function. It is considered the first phase of an employee’s professional development and training after the recruitment and selection process has been completed.
Training assists in improving the skills of the employees in such a way that the time required for them to learn is reduced due to training. Qualified trainers assist new employees to learn a particular job, quickly (Sharma & Kurukshetra, 2013:4). Training increases productivity because the new skill that the employee requires to perform the job is acquired through training. Therefore, once the skill level of the employees has been increased, the quantity and quality of the output will also likely increase. Training does not focus on improving the skills and knowledge of new employees, but also enhances existing employees’ performance on their current job assignments and prepares them for the future challenges (Sharma & Kurukshetra, 2013:8). Regarding the South African Police Service Act (Act 68 of 1995, Chapter 5, Section 11 [e]), the National Commissioner of the SAPS shall, among others, “establish and maintain training institutions or centres for the training of police officers”. Scott (2011:1-2) affirms that the SAPS has the obligation to provide “post-school education and training”. As is the case in the mentioned, departments, the mandate of the SAPS is to establish and maintain its training institutions to provide not only basic training to trainees but also in-service training in leadership and management to its members (Scott, 2011).
Lino (2004), also affirms the importance of continuing education and training for police members, claiming that police education and training is the main prerequisite for law enforcement agencies to provide a more secure environment to the community. He indicates, moreover, that at the end of the day, police education and training have a positive effect on the quality of the community as a whole. In this sense, police work is antagonistic because, while democracy demands freedom, police are asked to restrain outlaw behaviours. The ability to maintain such complex and dynamic behaviours within certain limits is the ultimate in policing. To acquire the knowledge needed, police officers must develop their skills in a multi-cultural learning pattern. Mille and Das (2008:185) agree with Lino that the dichotomy in policing involves the maintenance of a balance “between the pressure to get things done and the pressure to get things done correctly”. Criminal justice in a democratic community often demands the execution of crime control measures on one hand while simultaneously protecting the rights of the suspect on the other hand.
Afshan, Sultana, Sobia, Irum, Kamran, Ahmed and Nasir Mahmood (2012), point out that employees are a crucial but expensive resource. Therefore, it is necessary that the skills and knowledge of employees be maximised to achieve the aims and goals of the organisation and to sustain economic growth and adequate performance. Van der Westhuizen and Wessels (2011), emphasise that training interventions are usually identified and scheduled in a coordinated way. The emphasis is also made in that the contents of these training interventions are updated continuously to make provision for the changing needs of the particular institution. Therefore, training and development interventions are part of the process of transforming an individual employee into a professional.
Training in the SAPS is complex and different, reflecting the diversity of workplace training affirmed in the White Paper for Post-School Education and Training (2013). Since training and development in the SAPS is organisation-specific, it is essential to customise both to the requirements of a specific job and or to the current needs as identified by senior management. Only then would police officers be able to effectively execute the duties assigned to the police service regarding the current legislation. Given the scope of the White Paper for Post-School Education and Training (2013), police officers as adult learners need to acquire a range of knowledge and skills in different fields. Such fields could be on human behaviour, law, tactical skills, crime prevention and detention, as well as specialised areas such as forensic science, criminology, psychology, economics and management sciences.
Monappa and Saiyadain (2008), define training as the teaching or learning activities carried on for the primary purpose of helping members to acquire knowledge, skills, abilities and attitudes needed by that organisation. It is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job. Training, therefore, needs to be seen by the management of every organisation as a long-term investment in its human resource. Dessler (2008), further sees training as the means of giving new or current employees the skills they need to perform at their various jobs. Continuing, he sees training as the hallmark of proper management and thus when managers ignore training, they are doing so to the significant disadvantage of the organisations they are managing. This is because having high potential employees does not guarantee they will perform on-the-job and why every employee must know what management wants him to do and how he must do it. Training is, therefore, necessary to ensure an adequate supply of employees that are technically and socially competent for both departmental and management positions (Mullins, 2007).
Meyer (2007), specifies that training entails the transfer of specific skills to an employee so that a specific job or task can be performed. Training is concerned with skills acquisition and work performance, rendering it task oriented. Police education, training and development are continuously evaluated and assist in keeping track of the new political, social and economic changes occurring globally. Internationally, attempts are currently made to change approaches to policing. According to Kumpikaite and Ciarniene (cited by Eleve, 2013), training and development of employees help the organisation to meet competitive challenges and environmental changes. Afshan et al., (2012), state that training is necessary for employees to ensure that they are competent in all aspects including progressing in their careers, and moving into specialised departments and management positions. Therefore, staff development is a critical element that should be emphasised as an ongoing process. Further, training fulfils an integral part of this process.
Bernardin (2010:247), concurs with the previous authors in this context and defines training as “any attempt to improve employee performance on a currently held job or one related to it”. This usually means changes in specific knowledge, skills, attitudes or behaviours. The author clarifies that for the training to be practical it should involve learning experience, be a planned organisational activity and ought to be designed in response to identified needs. Preferably, training ought to be designed to meet the goals of the organisation while simultaneously meeting the goals of individual employees.
Training is a short-term process that entails the transfer of specific skills on an employee so that he or she can perform a particular job or task, and is mostly imparted to non-managerial personnel (Chatterjee, 2009). The focus is on improvement in performance after training with a perceptible behavioural change and improvement of strategic knowledge. Training usually takes place when a particular training need has been identified, such as a gap in performance or the introduction of new technology which requires new skills such as computer language, machine operations, playing tennis, and so on (Cascio, 2010; Jyothi & Venkatesh, 2006). Apart from the need to provide training that is aligned with organisational goals and vision, training related to career development should also be tailored to the career needs of individuals. This means what employees know, how they work on their attitudes towards their jobs, co-workers and the organisation as a whole (DeCenzo & Robbins, 2010). White and Escobar (2008), identify emerging issues in police officer training. They point out that police officers argue that the training given in police academies is irrelevant to real police work. In the police experience, the researcher often hears a seasoned veteran telling the rookies that the first thing they need to do is to forget everything they just learned in the academy (White & Escobar, 2008). He asserts that learning can be accelerated and made more systematic by relevant training that brings the reality of police work into the academy (ibid).
Bernardin (2010), concurs with the previous authors in this context and defines training as an attempt to improve employee performance on a currently held job or one related to it. This usually means changes in specific knowledge, skills, attitudes or behaviours. The author clarifies that for the training to be adequate; it should involve learning experience, be a planned organisational activity and be designed in response to identified needs. Preferably training should be designed to meet the goals of the organisation while simultaneously meeting the goals of individual employees. Ahmed, Sultana, Irum, and Mohamood (2012), point out that employees are a crucial but expensive resource. Therefore, it is necessary that the skills and knowledge of employees be maximised to achieve the aims and the goals of the organisation and to sustain economic growth and adequate performance.
Yigit (2008), states that INSET activities aim to offer trainers an opportunity to add to their professional knowledge and improve their professional skills to educate adult learners more efficiently. The researcher proposes that in-service training can help and support trainers in the SAPS to expand their current knowledge of a subject, acquire new knowledge and engage with colleagues at their current training establishments. Importantly, INSET helps trainers to plan and develop their work efficiently. Training is aimed at enhancing an organisation’s standing through the improvement of service delivery (SAPS, 2007c).
The definitions show two aspects of INSET; the increasing of employees’ capabilities, training, with the latter part being the enhancement of competence and performance. Development is defined as a managerial function used to preserve and enhance employees’ competencies by improving their abilities, knowledge, skills and other relevant characteristics (Grobler, Wärnich, Carrell, Elbert & Hatfield, 2011). The focus is on a wide variety of skills, abilities and knowledge. In addition, Kanyane and Mabelane (2009), identify two types of development: career development where performance data are used to decide on which employees should be promoted and development planning which assists employees in areas of poor performance. Planning for development in an organisation is conducted under the auspices of training and development. Training and development are terms that are used synonymously. However, Grobler et al., (2011:340), differentiate between the two. Training is a process that results in people acquiring capabilities to assist in the achievement of organisational goals. With this process, employees gain skills and information tailored to a specific process or workplace. One of the main purposes of training and development is to improve the performance of an organisation (Grobler et al., 2011).
Pannel and Sheehan (2010), state that policing is a challenging and complex occupation, which requires continuous development. Police officers must have intensive skills in criminal law, investigation and risk effective decision-making. They ought to also possess investigative knowledge and other skills as they advance in their career. Lack of training and development may result in financial losses associated with inadequate investigations, which often lead to case dismissals or wrongful convictions. The SAPS has a constitutional and police act mandate to ensure that it increases the number of skilled personnel to meet future requirements and challenges by providing training to its employees on a continuous basis. In the SAPS, the capacity of employees is also developed through training provided by both internal and external service providers. The SAPS in the Northern Cape Province currently consists of five clusters. There are training units in each cluster that cater for training to ensure that employees have relevant skills, knowledge, values and competencies that they require to perform their duties.
The Research and Development Division is responsible for the development of learning programmes in the SAPS. They are responsible for the curriculum design of the learning programmes in the SAPS. In the South African Police Service, members attend learning programmes on a continuous basis to enhance their skills and abilities. As such, adult learners and learning programmes are evaluated on a continuous basis in the SAPS. The ultimate objective of members attending learning programmes is that they will transfer the learning to their work environment. Police officers need to be able to implement their learning in the work environment. Additionally, the SAPS have various policy documents that guide the HRD function. However, there is no curriculum design policy for the development of learning programmes in the SAPS. The SAPS has various policy documents that guide the HRD function within. Based on the above definitions and arguments, it is imperative that once training has occurred, development should be seen as a long-term change that broadens individuals’ insight so that organisational objectives are achieved.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF INSET
The primary aim of INSET is to increase the quality of performance of employees through development, training and non-training intervention procedures and programmes (Erasmus, Loedolff, Mda & Nel, 2008). In addition, Werner and Desimone (2009), argue that the main aim of INSET is to improve organisational performance and to change employee behaviour. Two kinds of behaviours can be classified: those that are central to performing the job and those that are less vital but still contribute to organisational effectiveness. Continuous development of personnel has explicitly been designed to meet the challenges and demands of a democratic South Africa in the twenty-first century (RSA, 2007). The dispensation is in line with the National Skills Development Strategy (NSDS III) which encourages employee organisations to use the workplace as an active learning environment and to provide employees with the opportunities to acquire new skills. However, Noe (2008), provides a broader definition of training and refers to training as planned activities on the part of the organisation targeted towards increasing the job knowledge and skills. It is also aimed at modifying the attitudes and behaviours of employees in ways that are consistent with the goals of the organisation and the requirements of the job. The author adds that these competencies include knowledge, skills, or behaviours that are essential for successful job performance (ibid). Further, the subsidiary aims of INSET include improving the performances of employees who do not meet the required standards of performance (RSA, 2007).
The general assumption is that organisations that give priority to employee training will be better placed to succeed than others over time (Jayawarna, Macpherson & Wilson, 2007). South Africa has had to implement training policies as a means of addressing the skills shortages and training needs of its population after years of apartheid rule (Van Dyk, Nel, Loedolff & Haasbroek, 2001). This is done with the aim that training and education will promote skills development for employability and counterbalance the effects of skills shortages. Training has also been viewed as a tool for change management. For instance, Ivancevich (2007), states that training can be used to alter employee behaviour to conform to the achievement of organisational goals. However, despite the intended benefits that training can bring to an organisation, Brum (2007), points out that there is still a significant amount of arguments among scholars and professionals on the impact of training on both the employee and the organisation as a whole. Some studies have shown that the type of training implemented has an impact on employee attitude (Benson, 2006).
The purpose of INSET could be seen from the perspective of activities or functions in HRM, which are mainly individual development, organisational development, career development, and performance improvement, which can be described as interrelated functions within HRD (Chatterjee, 2009). Chatterjee (2009) further states that INSET could be seen from the perspective of activities or functions in HRM which are mainly individual development, organisational development, career development and performance improvement, which can be described as interrelated functions within HRD. According to Kumpikaite and Ciarniene (cited by Eleve, 2013), training and development of employees helps the organisation to meet competitive challenges and environmental changes. Training and development are regarded as an essential tool considering the growing complexity of the work environment. It ensures that employees have the necessary knowledge and skills to perform their duties efficiently and take on new responsibilities that will assist to adapt to changing conditions (Ndulue, 2012). Khan, Riaz, Ziauddin, Farooq and Ullah (2010) indicate that employee performance depends on various factors, but the most critical factor of employee performance is training. This means what employees know how they work, their attitudes towards their job, co-workers and the organisation as a whole according to DeCenzo and Robbins (2010). Training is not for individual benefit alone but the organisation as a whole. Therefore, training intervention needs to ensure that employees gain the skills that the organisation will require (ibid).
Pannel and Sheehan (2010), state that policing is a challenging and complex occupation; it requires continuous development. Police officers must have intensive skills in criminal law, investigation and risk effective decision-making. They also require investigative knowledge and other skills as they advance in their careers (ibid). Lack of training and development may result in financial losses associated with inadequate investigations, which often lead to case dismissals or wrongful convictions. In-service training and development (INSET) are for ensuring higher and lasting performance in any institution that is concerned with its outputs. INSET provides a framework for self-development, training programmes and career progression to meet an organisation’s skills requirements (Stare & Klun 2008). Sharma and Kurukshetra (2013), further explain that INSET also assists in ensuring the standardisation of procedures, which further allows high levels of performance. If employees are trained, they work intelligently and make a few mistakes because they possess the required skills and knowledge.
An excellent trainer is one who is dynamic; one who reads widely around the subject, continually develops training materials and regularly attends conferences. Trained personnel utilise material equipment better and more economically, thereby reducing wastage and accidents. When employees are trained, the rate of accidents and damage to specific machines and equipment are reduced. The reduction in accidents contributes to the increased cost savings and overall economy of the operations of the organisation (Sharma & Kurukshetra, 2013). INSET also assists in ensuring the standardisation of procedures, which further allows high levels of performance. If employees are trained, they work intelligently and make a few mistakes because they possess the required skills and knowledge (Sharma & Kurukshetra, 2013). According to Nel, Werner, Haasbroek, Poisat, Sono and Schultz (2010), INSET serves a dual role in that it helps management to meet its human resources requirements, while at the same time increasing the market value or marketability of those undergoing training. They also believe that personnel at the appropriate management and supervisory levels need to receive training in the application of policies and procedures.
According to the SAPS Act 1995 (Act 68 of 1995), the SAPS’ vision is to create a safe and secure environment for all people in South Africa. Its mission is to prevent anything that may threaten the safety or security of any community. It is also aimed at investigating any crimes that threaten the safety or security of any community and ensure that criminals are brought to justice and participate in efforts to deal with the causes of crime (SAPS Act, 1995: Act 68 of 1995). Therefore, the SAPS should equip its personnel with the necessary skills and knowledge to perform their duties (Masilela, 2012).
The high rate of criminal activities committed in this country, require the working force of the SAPS to be highly vigilant and effective in combating and investigating crimes. This can be enhanced through proper training and development (Sultana et al., 2012). These matters suggest that the SAPS require properly trained and equipped employees who will be able to deal with such challenges (Burger, 2013). This is in line with the research problem of ‘how could the levels of trainers’ professionalism within the SAPS be improved’? The high rate of criminal activities committed in this country requires the working force of the SAPS to be highly vigilant and effective in combating and investigating crimes. This can be achieved through appropriate training and development (Ahmed et al., 2012:625).
It is clear from the above arguments that INSET encompasses a range of events and activities through which working trainers can expand their personal, academic or practical teaching skills, their professional competence and their understanding of educational principles and methods. INSET could include such aspects as updating trainers’ skills and knowledge without a change in their role. It could also include the preparation for new roles and positions, upgrading and improvement of professional and academic qualifications and external or internal provision. It focusses on pedagogical issues and needs and programmes available throughout the careers of the trainers. INSET is provided for the benefit of employees of SAPS so that they can perform their task with maximum efficiency.
The aims of INSET, as discussed above, provide a theoretical underpinning of the principal objectives of HRD as encapsulated by organisations, individuals, departments and society at large. The enhancement of employees’ development is significant because it identifies their desired needs such as knowledge and skills so that they may perform to the best of their abilities, and consequently rate their actual performance for improvement.
INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
1.2 THE PROBLEM STATEMENT
1.4 RESEARCH AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE RESEARCH
1.7 DELIMITATIONS AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
1.8 THE THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVE
1.9 LITERATURE PREVIEW
1.10 RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
1.11 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
1.12 ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS
1.13 DIVISION OF CHAPTERS
CHAPTER 2 THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVE ON TRAINER PROFESSIONALISM IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN POLICE SERVICE
2.2 THE CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
2.3 LEARNING THEORIES
2.4 LEARNING THEORIES APPLICABLE TO ADULT LEARNING
2.5 CRITIQUES OF ANDRAGOGY
2.6 SECTION 2: PROFESSIONALISM
2.7 MAJOR ASPECTS OF PROFESSIONALISM FOR TRAINERS
2.8 COMMITMENT TO CHANGE AND CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT
2.9 EFFECTIVE TEACHING CHARACTERISTICS – WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO THE SAPS
2.10 VALUE SYSTEMS, ROLES AND ABILITIES OF AN EFFECTIVE TRAINER
2.11 TRAINING METHODS IN THE SAPS
2.12 PROFESSIONAL STANDARDS
2.13 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE OF TRAINING IN THE SAPS
CHAPTER 3 IN-SERVICE EDUCATION AND TRAINING (INSET) AS A MEANS TO IMPROVE TRAINER’S PROFESSIONALISM
3.2 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF INSET
3.3 THE OBJECTIVES OF INSET
3.4 IMPORTANCE AND SIGNIFICANCE OF INSET
3.5 GUIDELINES FOR CONDUCTING INSET EFFECTIVELY
3.6 APPROACHES TO TRAINING
3.7 NEED FOR TRAINER TRAINING IN THE SAPS
3.8 IMPACT OF TRAINING ON ORGANISATIONAL PERFORMANCE
3.9 TRAINING ON IMPROVING THE PERFORMANCE OF EMPLOYEES
3.10 IMPACT OF TRAINING ON HUMAN RESOURCE OUTCOMES
3.11 INSET AS A METHOD FOR RESTORING PROFESSIONALISM AMONG TRAINERS
3.12 INSET MODEL
3.13 THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A CULTURE OF TRAINING AND LEARNING
CHAPTER 4 RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
4.2 RESEARCH DESIGN
4.3 RESEARCH APPROACH
4.4 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
4.5 DATA COLLECTION STRATEGIES
4.6 THE QUESTIONS
4.7 DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.8 PREPARING THE DATA FOR ANALYSIS
4.9 MEASURES FOR TRUSTWORTHINESS
4.10 DELIMINATIONS AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
4.11 ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS
CHAPTER 5 RESEARCH FINDINGS, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION
5.1 INTRODUCTION 139 BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION
5.3 EMPIRICAL DATA
5.4 Theme 1: Expected, anticipated levels of trainer professionalism
5.5 Theme 2: Current levels of trainer professionalism
5.6 Theme 3: Improving levels of professionalism within the SAPS
CHAPTER 6 A SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION
6.3 FULFILMENT OF RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
6.4 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR TRAINING MANAGERS
6.5 A PROPOSED MODEL TO ENHANCE TRAINERS PROFESSIONALISM
6.6 AVENUES FOR FURTHER RESEARCH
GET THE COMPLETE PROJECT