CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW
A literature review may serve to identify a relevant theoretical or conceptual framework for defining the research problem (Polit & Beck, 2012:58), lay the foundation for a study, inspire new research ideas and determine any gaps or inconsistencies in the body of research, or share with the reader the results of studies that are closely related to the one being undertaken (Creswell, 2009:25). In this study, the researcher conducted a literature review to explore different aspects related to the development of a comprehensive support program for the management of alcohol abuse among students at HEIs. For this literature review, the term, “alcohol abuse” refers to the abuse of different harmful substances. However, the focus of this study is only on alcohol. Many programs and studies cover alcohol abuse as an overarching term that includes the abuse of all harmful substances.
The South African government made available norms and standards for alcohol abuse prevention and treatment and provides for the establishment of a NDMP, which seeks to reduce the supply and demand of substances as well as the harm caused by alcohol abuse. According to United Nations Drug Control Program (UNDCP) (1997), the NDMP is a national strategy that guides the operational plans of all government departments and other entities involved in the reduction of the demand for, supply of, and harm associated with the use and abuse of, and dependence on dependence-forming substances.
The NDMP (2013-2017) of South Africa was formulated by the Central Drug Authority (CDA) in terms of the Prevention of and Treatment of Alcohol Abuse Act (70 of 2008), as amended. The NDMP was approved by the South African parliament to meet the requirements of the international bodies concerned and the specific needs of the South African communities, which sometimes differ from the needs of other countries. The NDMP mandates local municipalities to implement harm, demand and supply reduction strategies. The community support networks are responsible for implementing these policies, programs and plans to address alcohol abuse.
HEIs in South Africa are therefore obliged to comply with the NDMP regulatory framework to put strategies in place to prevent alcohol abuse among students. Moreover, HEIs should ensure that students, who abuse alcohol, are identified, referred for treatment and supported during their rehabilitation period. Support programs which focus on individuals and groups and policies for alcohol abuse do exist at HEIs in South Africa, but it is not clear if these programs are comprehensive and focused on preventative or curative measures, as alcohol abuse amongst students at HEIs remains high (Sebena et al.2012:21).
The aim of the literature review is to explore relevant literature using peer-reviewed journals and ‘grey’ literature related to the significance and development of a comprehensive support program in the management of alcohol abuse among students at HEIs, with reference to the NDMP’s three pillars.
SCOPE OF THE LITERATURE REVIEW
The scope of the literature review will cover all relevant literature referring to the development of a comprehensive support program for the management of alcohol abuse among students at HEIs in South Africa
The methodology will be discussed under the following headings: search strategy for peer-reviewed journals, search strategy for grey literature, the inclusion and exclusion criteria and data extraction.
Search strategy for peer-reviewed journals
Literature searches were launched on the databases MEDLINE and PubMed. These databases are utilized on the basis that they are the largest abstract and citation databases for peer-reviewed literature, provide superior support for the literature research process in academia and give the researcher a global view. Given the fact that alcohol abuse is a social, political, health and economic problem; an electronic search was further launched on the following databases: Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), The ERIC database, WorldCat.org, Taylor and Francis Journals database, MEDLINE/PubMed database, Biomed Central database and Wiley Online Library database. An internet search was also carried out using Google and Google Scholar databases. The following search terms were identified: alcohol abuse, students, higher education institution, supply reduction, harm reduction, demand reduction, support program, mentoring, and alcohol policies.
The search results were initially broad and were narrowed with the use of more specific search topics. The reference lists from retrieved studies were manually searched. The reviewed literature comprised research conducted globally, in sub-Saharan Africa and in South Africa starting from 2006. The search was extended to cover the period from 2003 because the search from 2006 yielded minimal information. More than 80 articles, ten published theses, six unpublished theses and five mixed method studies were reviewed. Two hundred and fifty titles were identified, from which 55 abstracts were examined as they met the inclusion criteria. The 55 abstracts were further examined to verify if they address the research question. Fifteen of the articles were directly addressing HEIs’ policies and students’ culture of alcohol abuse at HEIs and therefore met the inclusion criteria
Search strategy for grey literature
Grey literature is material that is not formally published by commercial publishers or peer-reviewed journals. It includes reports, fact sheets, conference proceedings and other documents from institutions, organizations, and government agencies (Calabria, Phillips, Singleton, Mathers, Congreve, Degenhardt & McLaren, 2008:1).
Electronic search strategies were used to identify grey literature. The first step in the search for grey literature was to consult with the librarian about electronic databases that include grey literature sources for alcohol abuse. Many of these data-bases were listed as links on the National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre’s website. Additional databases and websites were found by consulting the related links pages on websites that were identified via search engines. In addition, the names of organizations responsible for collating state and national level statistics were identified from several reports and the corresponding websites were located where possible. The list of databases and websites was complemented with suggestions by experienced librarians.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS
CHAPTER 1 ORIENTATION TO THE STUDY
1.2 BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE
1.3 PROBLEM STATEMENT
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTION, AIM AND OBJECTIVES
1.6 PARADIGMATIC APPROACH
1.7 PHILOSOPHICAL ASSUMPTIONS OF THE STUDY
1.8 DEFINITIONS OF CONCEPTS
1.9 RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
1.10 MEASURES TO ENSURE TRUSTWORTHINESS
1.11 ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS
1.12 ORGANISATION OF THE THESIS
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.2 SCOPE OF THE LITERATURE REVIEW
2.4 DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS FROM LITERATURE REVIEW
CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
3.2 THE RESEARCH AIM AND OBJECTIVES
3.3 THE RESEARCH QUESTION
3.4 PRAGMATIC WORLDVIEW
3.5 RESEARCH DESIGN
3.6 MEASURES TO ENSURE TRUSTWORTHINESS IN THE STUDY
3.7. ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS
CHAPTER 4 PHASE 1 QUANTITATIVE RESULTS
4.2 PERMISSION TO CONDUCT DATA COLLECTION
4.3 SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE
4.4 THE QUESTIONNAIRE
4.5 DATA ANALYSIS
4.6 RESEARCH RESULTS
CHAPTER 5 PHASE 1 DISCUSSION OF QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH RESULTS AND LITERATURE CONTROL
5.2 DISCUSSION OF QUANTITATIVE RESULTS
5.3 COMPONENTS OF ALCOHOL ABUSE (SUPPORT) PREVENTION PROGRAM
5.4 SUGGESTIONS TO REDUCE ALCOHOL ABUSE
5.5 MATTERS HINDERING THE CONTROL OF ALCOHOL ABUSE
CHAPTER 6 PHASE 2 APPRECIATIVE INQUIRY PRESENTATION, DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS AND LITERATURE CONTROL
6.2 APPRECIATIVE INQUIRY WORKSHOP
6.3 APPRECIATIVE INQUIRY PHASES AS FOLLOWED IN THE WORKSHOP
6.4 SUMMARY OF RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DRAFT PROGRAM
CHAPTER 7 PHASE 3 REFINEMENT OF A COMPREHENSIVE SUPPORT PROGRAM IN THE MANAGEMENT OF ALCOHOL ABUSE AMONG STUDENTS AT HEIs IN SOUTH AFRICA HROUGH e-DELPHI TECHNIQUE
7.2 REACHING CONSENSUS FROM DELPHI TECHNIQUE IN HEALTH AND NURSING
7.3 METHODOLOGY FOR SUPPORT PROGRAM REFINEMENT AND VALIDATION
7.4 REFINEMENT OF THE DRAFT SUPPORT PROGRAM USING THE e-DELPHI TECHNIQUE
7.5 IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SUPPORT PROGRAM
7.6 FUTURE COLLABORATION
CHAPTER 8 EVALUATION, STRENGTHS, LIMITATIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND ONCLUSIONS OF THE STUDY
8.2 EVALUATION OF THE STUDY
8.3 THE AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
8.4 STRENGTH OF THE STUDY
8.5 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
8.6 UNIQUE CONTRIBUTION OF THE STUDY
8.7 RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE STUDY
8.8 CONCLUSIONS OF THE RESEARCH STUDY
LIST OF REFERENCES
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