MANAGEMENT OF CHANGE

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CHAPTER TWO MANAGEMENT OF CHANGE

INTRODUCTION

“Organisations exist in a dynamic environment in which changing ways of life,political trends and events in the environment, especially the ability to forecast the implications of these for managerial decision making, are now becoming a top priority for management, since past experience in the rapidly changing environment is often of little help when management has to deal with new problems. Knowledge of trends in the environment and identification of environmental dimensions that largely determine the progress of an organization, are also necessary for decision making to maximize efficiency” (Smit and De J Cronje, 1999:84-85). This knowledge requires scanning of the environment which enables management to timeously identify threats and challenges in the environment and, where possible, to transform them into opportunities.This chapter attempts to highlight the role of school managers with regard to new value systems that were brought about by the new democratic government. A major issue, however, is how effective are school managers in implementing change? During the period before the 1994 elections, people (learners, educators and parents) were expected to fit into the environment rather than act on it to implement changes. Any action or statement that conflicted with ideologies of the principal (acting for the state), were frowned upon or regarded as insubordination (Mda and Mothata,2000:65). In this chapter, the concept of management is no longer limited only to principals, it is a dynamic and inclusive concept that incorporates a participative approach and regards all stakeholders as active participants. The difference lies in the level at which each constituent operates. Participation is generally considered the most effective technique for overcoming resistance to change. It is also important in bringing together those affected to help implement the change (Smit and De J Cronje,1999:267).

WHAT IS CHANGE?

According to Smit et al, (1999:260) organisational change can be defined as “a process in which an organization takes on new ideas to become different. The necessity for change can be brought about by factors in the external environment or within the organization itself”. In general terms change represent the struggle between what is and what is desired. “Change is also a deliberate effort to change the status quo by means of a complicated process that requires thorough strategic planning”(Van Der Bank, 2000:101). Change always aims at improvement. Profound change requires investment – of time, energy, and resources. It requires a team genuinely committed to new organizational purposes, methods and working environments. The most important change initiatives seem to have these qualities:
ƒ They are connected with real work goals and processes;
ƒ They are connected with improving performance;
ƒ They involve people who have the power to take action regarding these goals;
ƒ They afford people an increased amount of opportunities to think and reflect without pressure to make decisions;
ƒ They are intended to increase people’s capacity, individually and collectively; and
ƒ They focus on learning about learning, in settings that matter (Senge et al,1999:43).
Some managers experience the new managerial work as a loss of power because much of their authority used to come from hierarchical position. Now that everything seems negotiable by everyone, they are confused about how to mobilize and motivate staff (Kanter, 1991:13). Most school managers in black schools have not had much management training in their role as change agents. They assume that a problem is solved when employees verbally agree to a change. Later they may learn that the employees have neither accepted nor learned how to implement the change. Fear of change is understandable, but because the environment changes rapidly and it has been doing so increasingly, organisations cannot afford not to change. In this study the major task of a manager is to implement change, and that entails overcoming resistance to it. (Kotter and Schlesinger, 1991:67).

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTORY ORIENTATION PAGE NO.
1.1 INTRODUCTION 
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 
1.3 AIMS OF THE STUDY 
1.4 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
1.4.1 QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
1.4.2 QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
1.4.3 LITERATURE REVIEW
1.4.4 EMPIRICAL STUDY
1.5 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY 
1.6 RESEARCH PROGRAMME 
1.7 DEFINITION OF CONCEPTS
1.7.1 CHANGE
1.7.2 CHANGE MANAGEMENT
1.7.3 SCHOOL CLIMATE
1.7.4 THE ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE
1.7.5 THE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT
1.7.6 EMPOWERMENT
1.8 CONCLUSION
CHAPTER 2: MANAGEMENT OF CHANGE
2.1 INTRODUCTION 
2.2 WHAT IS CHANGE? 
2.3 CHANGES IN EDUCATION 
2.4 THE NATURE OF CHANGE 
2.5 TYPES OF CHANGE 
2.6 VISION AND CHANGE 
2.7 CHANGE PROCESS
2.7.1 UNFREEZING
2.7.2 MOVEMENT
2.7.3 REFREEZING
2.8 ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE 
2.9 REACTIONS TO CHANGE 
2.9.1 SHOCK
2.9.2 ANGER
2.9.3 DENIAL
2.9.4 ACCEPTANCE
2.10 RESISTANCE TO CHANGE 
2.10.1 INDIVIDUAL RESISTANCE
2.10.2 ORGANISATIONAL RESISTANCE
2.11 OVERCOMING RESISTANCE TO CHANGE
2.11.1 COMMUNICATION
2.11.2 PARTICIPATION
2.11.3 SUPPORT
2.11.4 REWARD
2.11.5 PLANNING
2.11.6 COERCION
2.12 CHANGE MANAGEMENT 
2.13 HOW CHANGE IS IMPLEMENTED 
2.14 RESEARCH ON CHANGE 
2.15 CONCLUSION
CHAPTER 3: ORGANISATIONAL CLIMATE
3.1 INTRODUCTION 
3.2 AN ORGANISATION 
3.3 ORGANISATIONAL CLIMATE 
3.4 ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE 
3.5 THE CULTURE/CLIMATE DEBATE
3.6 CHARACTERSTICS OF CULTURE IN SCHOOLS 
3.7 CHANGE IN THE ORGANISATIONAL CLIMATE 
3.8 INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS
3.9 CONFLICT
3.10 TYPES OF CONFLICT 
3.11 COMMUNICATION 
3.12 MOTIVATION
3.13 FAILINGS IN EDUCATION 
3.14 CONCLUSION
CHAPTER 4: EMPIRICAL STUDY RELATED TO CHANGE ON SCHOOL CLIMATE AND INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS.
4.1 INTRODUCTION 
4.2 THE AIM OF THE STUDY 
4.3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
4.3.1 THE QUESTIONNAIRE
4.3.2 ADVANTAGES OF A QUESTIONNAIRE
4.3.3 THE DISADVANTAGES OF A QUESTIONNAIRE
4.3.4 THE INTERVIEW
4.4 VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY
4.5 RESEARCH POPULATION 
4.6 COMPARISON OF INDEPENDENT GROUPS 
4.7 MOTIVATION 
4.8 CULTURE OF LEARNING AND TEACHING 
4.9 TENSION AND MISUNDERSTANDINGS 
4.10 THE EFFECTIVENESS OF MANAGEMENT OF CHANGE
ON SCHOOL CLIMATE 
4.11 CONCLUSION
CHAPTER 5: FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 INTRODUCTION 
5.2 THE BIOGRAPHICAL DATA 
5.3 ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA 
5.4 RECOMMENDATIONS 
5.5 GUIDELINES FOR MANAGEMENT OF CHANGE
5.6 CONCLUSION 

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