Nature and scope of in-service education and training

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Objectives of in-service training.

In-service education and training has many objectives and takes many forms. Basically the objectives of in-service could be categorized as specific and general objectives. The specific objectives include learning activities tailored to the development needs of teachers. They help to equip teachers to deal with curriculum and other changes (Education Review Office 2000). The general objectives of inservice training may include the acquisition of general knowledge that may reflect the demands of the changing society.Most authors, especially Bagwandeen and Louw (1993) believe that one of the objectives of in-service training is consolidation and reaffirmation of knowledge. Considering the educational developments in recent times, it is necessary for even qualified teachers to refresh and improve their skills and knowledge.

School-based in-service training

School-based in-service education and training can be described as a programme which occurs physically within the school itself. It is planned by the staff for the teachers’ professional development. The role of the school in the provision of INSET is very crucial. However the role of the school is often neglected in the process of professional development. Joyce, Hersh and McKibbin (1983:61) state this more forcefully: “If the education profession is to flourish and if schools are to be a vital force in the society, it is necessary to rebuild the school into a life-long learning laboratory not only for children but for teachers as well”.

Identification of needs

In-service education and training begins with a thorough needs analysis of teachers. Hea-Jin (2001) asserts that professional growth is possible when professional development programmes respond to teachers’ personal needs. Furthermore it can be argued that reform is more likely to occur and become lasting, when teachers are aware of the need for improvement and then have a voice in its planning. This may lead them to derive a real sense of professional satisfaction from implementing the instructional changes. Most teachers whose personal needs are not addressed in an in-service training programme might usually have a negative attitude towards such programmes.

Facilitators of in-service training

There is no doubt that facilitators of in-service training play a key role in the success of the programmes. For a successful in-service training programme, the facilitator needs to be well prepared. He or she should know exactly what is to be done in a workshop session and that suitable activities need to be selected. The facilitator needs to encourage participants to get more involved in activities in the training sessions. It is therefore necessary that facilitators choose a combination of tasks and learning activities that best meet the specific goal and context of the workshop.

Overview of selected professional development approaches

Many countries are currently placing increasing emphasise on the importance of inservice training of their teachers. This is probably due to the fact that in-service training is being regarded as a strategy for effecting change throughout educational systems Education Review Office (2000). In this section, the researcher examines professional development approaches that have been implemented in three countries and found to be reliable. The selected countries represent both developed and developing economies. These countries are Mexico, New Zealand and South Africa.

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Teacher education reform in Mexico

Mexican teachers, according to Tatto (1998), not only lack a good preparation that would enable them to successfully teach but also confront a politically turbulent environment, work under poor conditions, and lack decision-making power in school governance. According to a report by the World Bank (1991), only about 50% of the basic education teachers in Mexico have the qualifications that are currently required to teach.

TABLE OF CONTENTS :

  • CHAPTER 1 GENERAL BACKGROUND AND MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY
    • 1.1 Introduction
    • 1.2 Why Inset in Mathematics Education
    • 1.3 Background to the problem
    • 1.3.1 Problem statement
    • 1.4 The rationale for the study
    • 1.5 Aims and objectives of the study
    • 1.6 Research methodology
      • 1.6.1 Qualitative method
    • 1.7 Sample and sampling techniques
    • 1.8 Data gathering
    • 1.9 Delimitation of the study
    • 1.10 Organisation of the study
  • CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW
    • 2.1 Introduction
    • 2.2 Definitions of in-service education and training
    • 2.3 Professional development and in-service education and training
    • 2.4 Objectives of in-service training
    • 2.5 Nature and scope of in-service education and training
    • 2.6 Categories of in-service training programmes
      • 2.6.1 School-based in-service training
      • 2.6.2 Short courses
    • 2.7 Identification of needs
    • 2.8 Facilitators of in-service training
    • 2.9 Overview of selected professional development approaches
      • 2.9.1 Teacher education reform in Mexico
        • 2.9.1.1 The PARE project in Mexico
        • 2.9.1.2 Evaluating the PARE programmes in Mexico
      • 2.9.2 Teacher development programmes in New Zealand
      • 2.9.3 Teacher development programmes in South Africa
  • CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND DESIGN
    • 3.1 Introduction
    • 3.2 Research methods
      • 3.2.1 Qualitative research approach
      • 3.2.2 Rationale for qualitative approach
      • 3.2.3 Reliability of qualitative approach
      • 3.2.4 Validity of qualitative approach
      • 3.2.5 Researcher’s role in qualitative approach
    • 3.3 Research design
      • 3.3.1 Design process
      • 3.3.2 Data collection instruments
      • 3.3.2.1 Personal interviews
      • 3.3.2.2 Limitations of interviews
      • 3.3.2.3 Types of interviews
      • 3.3.2.4 Choice of interview type
      • 3.3.2.5 The interview questions
      • 3.3.3 Sampling
      • 3.3.4 Types of sampling
      • 3.3.4.1 Probability sampling
      • 3.3.4.2 Non-probability sampling
  • CHAPTER 4 ANALYSIS OF RESULTS AND RESEARCH FINDINGS
    • 4.1 Introduction
    • 4.2 Conducting interviews
    • 4.3 Research analysis
      • 4.3.1 Qualification
      • 4.3.2 Highest level of study in mathematics
      • 4.3.3 Interest in further studies in mathematics
      • 4.3.4 School-based in-service training
      • 4.3.5 Identifying in-service needs of teachers
      • 4.3.6 The main focuses of mathematics workshops
      • 4.3.7 Motivation to attend in-service training programmes
      • 4.3.8 Facilitators during in-service training sessions
      • 4.3.9 Monitoring and supervision of teachers after in-service training programmes
  • CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY OF RESEARCH, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION
    • 5.1 Introduction
    • 5.2 Summary of the research
    • 5.3 Recommendations
    • 5.4 Limitations of the study
    • 5.5 Conclusion
  • BIBLIOGRAPHY
    • Appendix A
    • Appendix B
    • Appendix C

GET THE COMPLETE PROJECT
A CRITICAL INVESTIGATION INTO THE NATURE AND QUALITY OF IN-SERVICE EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAMMES FOR FURTHER EDUCATION AND TRAINING (FET) MATHEMATICS TEACHERS IN THE GREATER TAUNG AREA

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