NEW PRINCIPLES FOR LEAN THINKING

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CHAPTER THREE: LITERATURE REVIEW

INTRODUCTION

Having introduced the origins of lean thinking and organisational design and behaviour (Section 3.1), Section 3.2 covers the literature related to lean thinking. In this section, the literature is reviewed as it relates to this research study and the conceptual framework that sought to determine the relationships between lean thinking and the transformation of the discrete manufacturing organisation to an effective global competitor. The question of whether there was a relationship between lean thinking and on the organisational structure and behaviour is expanded on by using basic theory and the related literature and linking these to the principles and techniques of lean thinking.
The literature review considers relevant and current literature related to lean thinking and organisational structure and behaviour. Section 3.3 explores the general applications of lean thinking and, more specifically, reviews questions surrounding implementation issues. It investigates whether there were sections in the literature dealing with organisational behaviour and structural issues. The literature objectives of research dealing with the applications and influences of lean thinking is assessed for the research process, as is the existence of literature that addresses the research area. This section also discusses the research objective of identifying a gap in the literature regarding the influence of lean thinking in organisations.
Section 3.4 deals directly with lean thinking and organisational structure and behaviour. This section provides a synthesis of the literature relating to the research area. Apart from the focus area of lean thinking and organisational structure and behaviour, this section focuses on other areas of relevance such as lean and organisational learning, the factor of leadership and the factor of organisational culture.
Organisational structure, behaviour and transformation or change are discussed in Section 3.5. Aspects that are reviewed are those contained in the most current literature concerning organisations that need to change. Organisational learning is analysed together with the question of organisational culture and organisational leadership. A critical analysis of the literature is provided in order to draw on the parallels in lean implementation and organisational structure and behaviour.
In Section 3.6, lean thinking techniques are analysed and possible links between organisational structure and behaviour are investigated. An evaluation of the extent to which organisations have implemented lean techniques and how this process affects organisational performance is provided. The debate on whether lean techniques can be used as a measure of lean implementation is also discussed. This approach takes into account the objectives of lean applications and investigates whether literature exists that explains the relationship between lean thinking and organisational structure and behaviour.
This chapter concludes with a detailed summary that provides an overview of the achievement of the theoretical objectives set out in Chapter 1.

LEAN THINKING – APPLICATIONS AND IMPLEMENTATIONS

The purpose of this section was to establish whether pure lean thinking did have components that referred in some way to aspects of organisational structure and behaviour. A further consideration was included regarding the determination of whether literature in this category that related to the research area existed and whether the gap in the literature could be further substantiated.
As a general approach, the literature review used the work of Abdulmalek, Rajgopal and Needy (2006), who provide an effective framework for the application of lean thinking. This framework was tested in an utilisation study of a steel mill organisation. Figure 3.1 shows this framework, which was considered very effective and useful by the researcher, since it identifies the levels of lean applications as a pyramid, including 14 of the 20 lean techniques identified in the conceptual framework. The top level deals with the aim, the second level identifies the guiding principles for lean implementation: employee involvement, using less for more and the elimination of non-value activities. The third level shows 14 of the 20 lean techniques that were defined in Chapter 1.

Lean thinking implementation

The literature search provided a number of diverse studies dealing with lean implementations. This review has attempted to categorise approaches in order to determine the patterns that relate to the research area. Synthesis was applied in order to determine how the theoretical and literature objectives had been achieved.
Womack (2002), Brown et al. (2006), Hettler (2008), Lander (2007) and Bo and Mingyao (2012) all support the view that value stream mapping is a vital step in determining the current state of an organisation, including the drawing of a value stream map of the future state of the organisation in order to envision what is realistically achievable with lean transformation. Womack (2002) proposes the appointment of an individual who is given this task and the necessary authority and financial backing to achieve the future state map. He also emphasises the need for truly rigorous pull systems to secure flow. As far as the organisation is concerned, Womack (2002) recommends that all value stream managers, manufacturing engineers, industrial engineers and information managers in production control and logistics functions are brought together to support every value stream. He further proposes that, once the value streams have been established and are continuously improved at the facility level, the scope should be expanded to include the larger value stream from raw materials to customer.
Brown et al. (2006) in their research of one case study propose the formation of a Kaizen team to assist in transformation and the promotion of manufacturing cells to identify with the future state value stream map. In order to transform the organisation, Brown et al. (2006) suggest a solution based on lean thinking in order to change an organisation from traditional batch manufacturing to lean production. These authors have a project approach in mind, with a Kaizen manager and team interacting with the value stream. Brown et al. (2006) developed their implementation proposal, based on a case study, to transform an organisation from a traditional batch manufacturer to a lean manufacturer in order to reduce inventories and improve the organisation’s cash flow. However, the implementation steps in Figure 3.2 coincide with all the similar techniques, supported by the identified lean practitioners.

CHAPTER ONE: BACKGROUND AND ORIENTATION 
1.1 INTRODUCTION
1.2 THE TOPIC
1.3 THE CONTEXT OF THE RESEARCH INTEREST
1.4 PURPOSE OF THE RESEARCH
1.5 THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
1.6 THE RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.7 OBJECTIVES
1.8 THE CONCEPT
1.9 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK AND DERIVED HYPOTHESES AND PROPOSITIONS
1.10 THE RATIONALE FOR THE STUDY
1.11 IMPORTANCE OF THE RESEARCH
1.12 ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS
1.13 THE RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
1.14 DELIMITATIONS AND SCOPE
1.15 LIMITATIONS
1.16 OUTLINE OF THESIS
1.17 SUMMARY
CHAPTER TWO: BASIC THEORY 
2.1 INTRODUCTION
2.2 BASIC LEAN THINKING AND ORGANISATIONAL THEORY IN CONTEXT
2.3 SUMMARY
CHAPTER THREE: LITERATURE REVIEW 
3.1 INTRODUCTION
3.2 LEAN THINKING – APPLICATIONS AND IMPLEMENTATIONS
3.3 LEAN THINKING AND ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE AND BEHAVIOUR
3.4 ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE, BEHAVIOUR AND STRUCTURE
3.5 LEAN TECHNIQUES – CONSIDERING THE METHODOLOGIES AND POSSIBLE
EFFECTS ON ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE AND BEHAVIOUR
3.6 SUMMARY
CHAPTER FOUR: STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM, HYPOTHESES ANDPROPOSITIONS 
4.1 INTRODUCTION
4.2 NOTED RESEARCH REGARDING THE PROBLEM AREA
4.3 THE GAP IN THE THEORY AND THE LITERATURE
4.4 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
4.5 HYPOTHESES AND PROPOSITIONS
4.6 SUMMARY
CHAPTER FIVE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 
5.1 INTRODUCTION
5.2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY OPTIONS FOR A MIXED METHOD CASE STUDY APPROACH
5.3 DEVELOPING AN APPROACH MODEL FOR THE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
5.4 CHOICE OF MULTIPLE CASE STUDIES AS THE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
5.5 DESIGN OF THE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
5.6 ANALYSIS OF DATA
5.7 TESTS FOR DETERMINING THE VALIDITY OF THE CASE STUDY RESEARCH
5.8 CASE STUDY METHODOLOGY RESEARCH PROTOCOL
5.9 SUMMARY
CHAPTER SIX: DATA COLLECTION, ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS 
6.1 INTRODUCTION
6.2 FIRST CASE REPORT – ORGANISATION F01
6.3 SECOND CASE REPORT – ORGANISATION W01
6.4 QUANTITATIVE ANALYSES 209
6.4.1 QUANTITATIVE DATA 209
6.5 CROSS-CASE ANALYSES 224
6.6 CONSIDERING HYPOTHESES WITH PROPOSITIONS
6.7 CASE STUDY VALIDITY
6.8 REVIEW OF RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
6.9 SUMMARY
CHAPTER SEVEN: CONCLUSION, OUTCOMES, SIGNIFICANCE AND FUTURE RESEARCH 
7.1 INTRODUCTION
7.2 OUTCOMES – SOLUTION TO THE PROBLEM
7.3 NEW PRINCIPLES FOR LEAN THINKING
7.4 SIGNIFICANCE
7.5 FUTURE RESEARCH
REFERENCES
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THE INFLUENCE OF LEAN THINKING ON DISCRETE MANUFACTURING ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE AND BEHAVIOUR

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