Power Consumption Modeling for PLC Modems 

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Energy Consumption of ICT Networks

Over the years, the use of ICT has exploded and it has actively contributed to environmental issues. According to [Smart], the impact of the ICT sector on the worldwide energy consumption could range from 2% to 10 %. Moreover, ICT accounts for around 2% of total carbon emissions. Within ICT, more than 50% of the power consumption is due to telecommunication networks including LANs, Wireless Local Area Network (WLANs), xed-line telecommunication networks, mobile networks, etc. The repartition of energy consumption, and the percentage of carbon footprint of dierent ICT sectors are provided in Fig. 2.1 and Fig. 2.2 respectively. With the enormous increase of the ICTs, these numbers will likely increase over time. Reference [Haardt2008] indicates that growth in energy consumption is 16% to 20% per year in the eld of ICT. As an example, Fig. 2.3 reports a prediction of the energy consumption growth of telecommunication networks in the coming years [Lange2011]. It shows that home networks consume a high amount of the overall energy associated with the operation of ICT networks. Therefore, new challenges arise due to the rapid increase of the trac volume of broadband telecommunications, which require a massive research eort into the energy eciency of ICT systems. The challenge of the European Commission (EC) is to reduce at least 20% of Europe’s energy consumption by 2020. In order to achieve this challenge, the EC has nanced more than 30European (EU) research projects working on energy eciency in ICT. In the next section we present major academic and industrial EU research projects dedicated to green communications.

EARTH

The EARTH (Energy Aware Radio and neTwork tecHnologies) project [EARTH] is an Integrated Project of the EU 7th Framework Programme (FP7 IP) which started in January 2010, nished in June 2012 and aimed to address the global environmental challenge by investigating and proposing eective solutions to reduce the power consumption and improve the energy eciency of mobile broadband communication systems. The overall target of the EARTH project was to reduce the energy consumption of mobile broadband networks by 50% with preserved quality of service. By using a holistic approach aecting all layers, from hardware components up to system level, EARTH overachieved its ambitious target by providing integrated solutions allowing for savings in the range of 70%. The main results of the EARTH project are:
Energy ecient deployment strategies.
Energy ecient network architectures.
New network management mechanisms, adaptive to load variations with time.
Innovative component designs with energy ecient adaptive operating points.
New radio and network resource management protocols for multi-cell cooperative networking.

OPERA-Net

The OPERA-Net (Optimising Power Eciency in Mobile Radio Networks) Celtic- Plus project [OPERA-Net] started on June 2008 for a duration of 3 years. It was then extended by the Celtic-Plus project OPERA-Net 2 [OPERA.Net2], which ended on November 2014. This project investigated the opportunities to reduce the overall environmental impact of mobile radio networks by considering optimized cooling and energy recovery from the base stations and the optimization of the components used in communication systems. The energy eciency approaches and the the main results of the OPERA-Net project include models to reduce energy consumption, new hardware architectures and designs, energy eciency measurements  methods, energy-aware scheduling algorithms for joint energy consumption and interference optimization, radio resource management in a live 3G cellular network, key performance indicators for 4G equipment energy eciency and network-level power saving protocols.

Green Radio

The Mobile Virtual Centre (VCE) Green Radio project [GreenRadio] was established in 2009. This project is still ongoing and sets the goal of achieving a 100-fold reduction in power consumption over current wireless communication networks. This must be achieved without compromising the QoS for the user and without negative impacts to the deployment costs for network operators, equipment manufacturers, content providers, etc. The main achievements of the project are the denition of energy metrics to accurately quantify power consumption, the design of advanced power ampliers (PA) with higher eciency, the identication of energye cient cooperative physical (PHY) layer architecture using emerging information theory ideas to mitigate interference and the development of energy ecient DSP techniques.

READ  Inter-symbol and inter-carrier interference analysis in In-home PLC systems 

Table of contents :

Acknowledgments
Abstract
Resume
Contents
List of Figures
List of Tables
Abbreviations
Acronyms
Introduction generale 
0.1 Contexte de la these et objectifs de recherche
0.2 Contributions de la these
0.3 Structure de la these
General Introduction 
0.4 Thesis overview and research objectives
0.5 Thesis Contributions
0.6 Structure of the thesis
Publications 
1 Broadband Power Line Communications 
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Brief history of the PLC technology
1.3 Indoor power line network structure
1.4 The status of broadband PLC standardization
1.4.1 IEEE 1901
1.4.1.1 HomePlugAV
1.4.1.2 HomePlug AV2
1.4.1.3 HomePlug GP
1.4.2 ITU-T G.hn
1.5 Transmission techniques exploited by the PLC technology
1.5.1 Modulation
1.5.1.1 OFDM Transmission chain
1.5.2 MIMO PLC
1.5.2.1 MIMO PLC channel capacity
1.6 Electromagnetic compatibility issues
1.7 PLC channel and noise
1.7.1 PLC channel modeling
1.7.1.1 Bottom-up approach
1.7.1.2 Top-down approach
1.7.2 PLC noise
1.7.2.1 Impulsive noise
1.7.2.2 Narrowband noise
1.7.2.3 Background noise
1.8 Conclusion
2 Introduction to Green Communications 
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Energy Consumption of ICT Networks
2.3 Projects
2.3.1 EARTH
2.3.1.1 OPERA-Net
2.3.2 Green Radio
2.3.3 ECONET
2.3.3.1 GreenTouch
2.3.4 GREENCoMM
2.4 Current strategies for green communications
2.4.1 Energy eciency metrics
2.4.2 Hardware techniques
2.4.2.1 Improvement on Component Level
2.4.2.2 Power saving modes
2.4.3 Network management techniques
2.4.3.1 Decode and forward
2.4.3.2 Amplify and Forward
2.4.3.3 Compress and Forward
2.4.3.4 Demodulate-and-Forward
2.4.4 Resource allocation techniques
2.5 Conclusion and future directions
3 Power Consumption Behaviour of PLC Modems: Measurements and Experimental Analysis 
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Power consumption behaviour of SISO PLC modems
3.2.1 Processing of Ethernet frames through the PLC modem
3.2.2 SISO Experimental setup
3.2.2.1 Trac generation
3.2.2.2 SISO PLC modems
3.2.2.3 Measuring electrical power consumption
3.3 Power consumption behaviour of MIMO PLC modems
3.3.1 MIMO Experimental setup
3.3.1.1 MIMO PLC modems
3.3.1.2 Measuring electrical power consumption
3.4 Measurements
3.4.1 Baseline power consumption
3.4.2 Per-Ethernet port power PE
3.4.3 Power consumption vs data rate
3.5 Analysis and main ndings
3.6 Conclusion
4 Power Consumption Modeling for PLC Modems 
4.1 Introduction
4.2 power consumption modeling
4.2.1 Metrics of power modeling
4.2.1.1 Accuracy
4.2.1.2 Complexity
4.2.1.3 Generality
4.2.1.4 Granularity
4.2.2 Deterministic power modeling
4.2.3 Statistical power modeling
4.2.4 Linear regression modeling
4.3 power consumption model for PLC modems
4.3.1 SISO PLC modems
4.3.2 MIMO PLC modems
4.3.3 Estimation of the power consumption model parameters
4.4 Summary and Discussion
4.4.1 SISO case
4.4.2 MIMO case
4.5 Conclusion
5 Relay-Assisted PLC Networks with uniform time allocation 
5.1 Introduction
5.2 System model
5.3 power consumption model
5.3.1 Direct Transmission (DT)
5.3.2 Half-Duplex DF Relaying
5.4 Performance analysis
5.4.1 Rate improvement for given power
5.4.1.1 Direct transmission
5.4.1.2 HD DF relaying
5.4.2 power saving for a given target rate
5.4.2.1 Direct transmission
5.4.2.2 HD relaying
5.5 Numerical results and analysis
5.5.1 Experimental channels
5.5.2 Wideband Indoor Transmission Channel Simulator (WITS) .
5.5.3 Scenario 1
5.5.4 Scenario 2
5.5.5 Achievable rate benets
5.5.6 power eciency benets
5.5.6.1 Zero static power
5.5.6.2 Non-zero static power
5.6 Conclusion
6 Relay-Assisted PLC Networks with optimal time allocation 
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Optimal time share to improve the data rate for a given power .
6.3 Optimal time share to save power for a given target rate
6.3.1 Calculating the optimal time allocation
6.4 Numerical results and analysis
6.5 Conclusion
General Conclusion and Perspectives
Bibliography

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