PREVALENCE OF EMOTIONAL AND BEHAVIOURAL PROBLEMS OF SCHOOL ADOLESCENTS

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CHAPTER TWO THEORETICAL AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

INTRODUCTION

In the first chapter, the orientation and background of the study, the statement of the problem, research questions and hypotheses, research design and methods of the study, as well as an outline of the division of chapters were presented. The intention of this chapter is to provide a review of the literature that serves as the theoretical framework of the study. Accordingly, the ecology of human development theory, the biological factor theory and the bio-ecological model of human development theories are discussed in brief. Similarly, a summary of the model of the conceptual frameworks, with special reference to factors affecting human development in general and emotional and behavioural development in particular, are included in this chapter. These theoretical frameworks were selected because of their comprehensiveness in explaining how human development is affected and influenced throughout one’s lifespan.

THEORIES OF EMOTIONAL AND BEHAVIOURAL PROBLEMS

Individuals who are suffering from emotional and behavioural problems demonstrate a very wide range of characteristics such as depression, feelings of anger or frustration, acting shy and withdrawn, aggressive/violent toward others in magnified manner or pattern than their peers (Quinn et al., 2000). The theories for the development of such problems are sourced from various theorists who have diverse perspectives. There are differing theories and research findings on the emotional and behavioural problems of individuals. Different approaches/theories try, in different ways, to explain the causal attributing factors for the development of emotional and behavioural problems.
It appears that most of the prominent theories that explain the development of human beings are: the ecology of human development theory, the biological factor theory and the bio-ecological model of human development theory. Their views regarding the development of emotional and behavioural problems were based on different standing points and most likely researched in a different manner. Nonetheless, these theories are considered to be well justified and good scientific explanations that are accepted by the scientific body and acknowledged as well as having made a contribution regarding the development of individuals’ diverse positive or negative behaviours. The abovementioned three theories are therefore elaborated on and reviewed regarding the factors associated with each of them that contribute to the development of the said problems. These theories are discussed and reviewed below concerning the ways in which they approach the subject and to what they attribute the causal roots of the given problems.

Ecology factors of Human Development theory

The development of an individual is affected and determined by the biosphere in which they interact and involved throughout their lifespan. Age related cognitive, emotional and behavioural developmental changes are indispensable processes for the development of health and competence or maladjustment and disorders of an individual (Melchert, 2015). This is because individuals mature as they age, affording many opportunities for interaction with their ecology. This in turn affects their emotional and behavioural development and the health condition of an individual. In this regard, the study by Taylor, Jacobson and Roberts (2000) argues that those social contexts in which adolescents live directly and/or indirectly affect individuals’ behaviour.
The family, the neighbourhood, the peers, the schooling, the school environment and the way by which the individuals interact as well as experiences in the community directly or indirectly play important roles in the development of healthier or maladjusted behaviours. In addition, the authors emphasised that the extent to which adolescents engage in problematic behaviours with peers and the reaction of their parents towards that behaviour may in turn affect the adolescents’ engagement in such types of problematic behaviours in the future (Taylor et al., 2000).
In general, individual development and functioning capabilities are the outcomes of the interplay among hereditary, biological and individual psychological processes, socio-cultural and historical features of the community through which the individual is supposed to be cultivated (Melchert, 2015). Consequently, some of the important aspects of ecology theory are related to the parental living conditions, school related factors and social contexts. Hence, factors related to parents/guardians and factors related to school and social contexts, which are expected to contribute a great deal to the development of emotional and behavioural problems of adolescents, are provided below.

Family related factors

The study by Sijtsema, Oldehinkel, Veenstra, Verhulst, and Ormel (2014) on a sample population of 2,230 adolescents who were between 10 and 20 years old, concluded that both the structural family characteristics (socio-economic status, family composition, family psychopathology) and dynamic family characteristics (parental warmth and rejection) had a greater effect on the development of aggressive and depressive problems in adolescence. It was particularly noted that the impact of dynamic characteristics by far exceeded the effect of the families’ structural characteristics. Moreover, the early childhood living environmental conditions together with the caregiving relationship comprises one of the factors that leads to a borderline personality (Steele et al., 2015). In one way or the other, such a personality may be related to the development of emotional and behavioural problems of an individual. This is because the individuals are deviating from the so-called normal personality.
The development of emotional, behavioural and psychological problems that may have adverse effects on academic, social or emotional progress could be caused by parental and social pressure on the adolescents (Saleem & Mahmood, 2013). Furthermore, the parent and adolescent relationship and negative life events of adolescents are among the strongest contributors that have an enormous impact on the prevalence of these types of problems in adolescents (Wang et al., 2013). The parental influence on adolescents is not just that what happened during their adolescence had a major impact on their development; it could be the result of a cumulative effect of the parents’ relationship with and treatments of the adolescent as a child in their earlier life experiences and interactions that might have affected different developmental aspects of the individual. Subsequently, directly or indirectly, the previous experiences of individuals with their parents play a significant role in the development of individual characteristics (psychological, moral, behavioural, emotional, and so forth).
To sum up, as indicated above, factors that relate to parents such as socioeconomic conditions, behaviours and interactions with their children have a considerable effect on the development of emotional and behavioural problems of adolescents. This firstly implies that the responsibility for the normal development of an individual falls heavily on the shoulders of parents. Therefore, parent-related issues play a major role for either the maladjustment or the healthy development of their children.

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School related factors

School is one of the important environmental factors responsible for the development of an individual. However, schools can sometimes be contributors to maladjusted development of the different functioning or psychological aspects of an individual. Proper and appropriate school environments are important aspects for the students’ development of personality since children spend most of their time in school (Lawrence & Vimala, 2012). Furthermore, school environments greatly dominate how the students behave and interact (Odeh, Oguche, Angelina & Dondo, 2015).
School structure, school composition and school climate are important influences on the academic success and performance of students (Korir & Kipkemboi, 2014). For instance, sound educational processes can occur better in normal physical, social, cultural and psychological settings and environments (Lawrence & Vimala, 2012). In general, from these explanations, it is possible to deduce that the school environment has a great impact on shaping and moulding the behaviour of adolescents. For example, if the school environment and interaction with others encourages a sense of aggression, there is a tendency for one to be motivated to engage in aggressive acts/behaviours. In another example, if an individual is embarrassed by aggressors they may feel discomfort in the school environment. This feeling may, in turn, lead her or him to withdraw or become depressed, or exhibit fear and anxiety. Conversely, the feeling of discomfort might elicit a tendency to show defensive and aggressive behaviours. Thus, this discussion on school related factors, constrains one to consider that school related factors could be the cause for the development of emotional and behavioural problems.

The social context

It is to be expected that the behaviour of individuals is affected by the social context. One of the influential aspects of the social context consists of culturally dependent social roles (Matsumoto, 2007). Social roles arise from expectations and normative behaviours that emerge from basic human interaction within specific ecological contexts in which groups, through a process of environmental adaptation, exert pressure on an individual’s behaviour (ibid). Different communities display different culturally dependent social roles; hence the individuals living in a different social environment are affected by different cultural roles. It is anticipated that individuals need to behave in accordance with the cultural norms of a society. For instance, in a community where there are conflict and a violent social environment, an individual tends to develop such types of behaviours, whereas in an area where attitudes are reflected in a community’s prejudice against some ethnic group, it is likely that the individuals may demonstrate similar behaviours or attitudes.

Biological factors theory of human development

Changes in biological factors that involve the development of the neural system/ brain, and different hormones and the endocrine system, according to the biological blueprint, bring about radical variations in different aspects of the development of adolescents. For instance, these could be in the areas of functional capacities, behaviour and emotions, cognition or moral and other developmental aspects of individuals. The quality of a teenager’s thinking increases with the development of the spurt in growth of the parietal and frontal lobes in the brain as well as in the subcortical regions (Dacaye & Travers 2009).
The physical developments that take place during adolescence, particularly the changes that occur in puberty, are: physical maturation, hormonal and bodily changes, adolescent sexuality, and the brain (Santrock, 2006). These are dominant biological changes that are responsible for the development of individual behaviours and personality in general. Of course, environmental attributes, like nutrition – an important component for change – interacting with hereditary factors in affecting the development of individuals, are responsible for these physical changes. Overall, these fundamental changes during the pubertal period are common biological experiences worldwide (Vlasova & Grigutytė, 2013).

CHAPTER ONE: ORIENTATION AND BACKGROUND
1.1 INTRODUCTION
1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
1.4 RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
1.5 ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
1.7 DELIMITATIONS
1.8 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
1.9 CONCLUSION
1.10 CHAPTER OUTLINE
CHAPTER TWO: THEORETICAL AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
2.1 INTRODUCTION
2.2 THEORIES OF EMOTIONAL AND BEHAVIOURAL PROBLEMS
2.3 A SUMMARY OF THE MODEL OF CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
2.4 SUMMARY
CHAPTER THREE: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
3.1 INTRODUCTION
3.2 OVERVIEW
3.3 ASPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT
3.4 PREVALENCE OF EMOTIONAL AND BEHAVIOURAL PROBLEMS OF SCHOOL ADOLESCENTS
3.5 TYPES OF EMOTIONAL AND BEHAVIOURAL PROBLEMS
3.6 CONCLUSION
CHAPTER FOUR: RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
4.1 INTRODUCTION
4.2 RESEARCH PROBLEM
4.3 RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
4.4 ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS
4.5 CONCLUSION
CHAPTER FIVE: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSES
5.1 INTRODUCTION
5.2 DATA PRESENTATION
5.3 CONCLUSION
CHAPTER SIX: SUMMARY, FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION
6.1 INTRODUCTION
6.2 SUMMARY
6.3 FINDINGS
6.4 RESEARCH CONCLUSIONS
6.5 RECOMMENDATIONS
6.6 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
6.7 7SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
6.8 CONCLUSION
List of References
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