PRINCIPLES FOR EFFECTIVE AND EFFICIENT PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND MANAGEMENT

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CHAPTER TWO: REQUIREMENTS FOR EEFECTIVE AND EFFICIENT MANAGEMENT

INTRODUCTION

The public expects state institutions and parastatal institutions responsible for the management of natural resources such as those found in the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park to be managed effectively and efficiently. The effective and efficient management of the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park is aimed at preserving the ecosystem for future generations. It is, therefore, necessary for one to investigate the basic requirements for effective and efficient management of the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park as the establishment of transfrontier parks is of recent origin in Southern African Development Community (SADC) and points to the evolution of a unique dimension of public administration and management.This chapter focuses on the rationale for effective and efficient public management; the principles for effective and efficient management; management skills; research and information management; adherence to ethics; conservation awareness, education, training and development; communication; control and management structures for the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park.

RATIONALE FOR EFFECTIVE AND EFFICIENT CONSERVATION MANAGEMENT

The overarching reason for preserving the environment as indicated above is the well being of the current and future generations. Earth and its inhabitants are faced with a deteriorating environment in spite of the abundance of environmental philosophy, laws and regulations. Only 8% of the earth’s water resources are fit for human consumption.The earth’s environment is the only place in the known universe that sustains life. If it should lose its ability, humankind as species, together with all other forms of life on planet earth will cease to exist. Contrary to this scary reality, humankind appears to continue destroying the natural environment on which humankind is totally dependent (Nealer 1998: 68, 69). It is inevitable that the needs of the community will always be greater than the resources available to satisfy those needs. This characteristic of the human society is evident when the population increases and exerts more pressure on the available resources (Cloete 1998: 110) such as land. The scarcity of natural resources and the fact that most of them are not easy to replenish compels public institutions, parastatal institutions and members of the public to use and manage such resources sparingly. Furthermore, the South African public service must remain a body of persons of which South Africans can be proud of.Effective and efficient public management will instil pride in the eyes of members of the public. For this reason, service delivery must be continually modernized, improved and directed towards the interest of citizens. The public service is expected to simplify and modernize its management and administrative systems and processes to make them more efficient and cost effective (Kroukamp 2001: 27). Efforts to modernise service delivery in South Africa do not focus on reducing costs only. Rather, they are aimed at ensuring that South Africans receive an ever improving mix of government services that reflect their requirements, and aimed at ensuring that the government provides these services from a stable expenditure base. The design and delivery of public services must be oriented towards the citizen and not towards the needs of the public service, current management styles or outmoded service delivery processes (Kroukamp, 2001: 27-28). The rationale for effective and efficient conservation management necessitates meticulous adherence to the principles for effective and efficient public administration and management as discussed hereunder.

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Acknowledgements
Summary
Abstract
Key terms
Declaration
CHAPTER ONE: GENERAL INTRODUCTION
1.1 INTRODUCTION
1.2 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE GREAT LIMPOPO TRANSFRONTIER PARK
1.4 PROBLEM STATEMENT
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTION
1.6 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
1.9 ETHICAL REQUIREMENTS
1.10 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
1.10.1 Data collection
1.10.2 Data analysis
1.11 SEQUENCE OF CHAPTERS
1.12 CLARIFICATION OF TERMS
1.12.1 Public Administration and public administration
1.12.2 Effectiveness
1.12.3 Efficiency
1.12.4 Environmental management
1.12.5 Management
1.12.6 Governmental relations
1.12.7 Transfrontier park
1.12.8 Transfrontier conservation area
1.12.9 Peace Park Foundation
1.12.10Conservation
1.12.11Biodiversity
1.12.12Ecosystem
1.12.13Sustainable development
1.13 CONCLUSION
CHAPTER TWO: REQUIREMENTS FOR EFFECTIVE AND EFFICIENT MANAGEMENT
2.1 INTRODUCTION
2.2 RATIONALE FOR EFFECTIVE AND EFFICIENT CONSERVATION MANAGEMENT
2.3 PRINCIPLES FOR EFFECTIVE AND EFFICIENT PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND MANAGEMENT
2.4 ADHERENCE TO ETHICAL STANDARDS
2.5 MANAGEMENT SKILLS
2.6 RESEARCH AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT
2.7 CONSERVATION AWARENESS, EDUCATION, TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
2.7.1 Conservation awareness
2.7.2 Education
2.7.3 Training and development
2.8 COMMUNICATION
2.9 CONTROL
2.9.1 Control structures for the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park
2.9.1 Parliament
2.9.1.2 Cabinet
2.9.1.3 Auditor-General
2.9.2 Governing and management structures for the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park
2.9.2.1 Trilateral Ministerial Committee
2.9.2.2 Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park Joint Management Board
2.9.2.3 Coordinating party
2.9.2.4 Management committees
2.10 CONCLUSION
CHAPTER THREE: INTERNATIONAL GOVERNMENTAL RELATIONS
3.1 INTRODUCTION
3.2 SOVEREINGTY OF THE STATE
3.3 GLOBALISATION AND THE AFRICAN RENNAISANCE
3.4 SOUTH AFRICA’S FOREIGN POLICY
3.5 INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 
3.5.1 UNITED NATIONS
3.5.2 The World Bank
3.5.3 The World Conservation Union and the regional Office for Southern Afric
3.5.4 African Union
3.5.5 Southern African Development Community
3.6 BILATERAL AND MULTILATERAL RELATIONS
3.7 CONCLUSION
CHAPTER FOUR: INTERGOVERNMENTAL RELATIONS
4.1 INTRODUCTION
4.2 NATURE OF THE STATE AND SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT
4.3 CONSTITUTIONAL AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR
INTERGOVERNMENTAL RELATIONS IN RESPECT OF THE GREAT LIMPOPO TRANSFRONTIER PARK
4.4 DIFFERENT FORMS OF GOVERNMENTAL RELATIONS
4.4.1 Vertical intergovernmental relations
4.4.2 Horizontal intergovernmental relations
4.5 DEPARTMENTS AND INTERGOVERNMENTAL STRUCTURES FOR THE NATIONAL SPHERE
4.5.1 Departments involved in the management of the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park
4.5.1.1 Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism
4.5.1.2 The South African Police Service
4.5.1.3 The South African National Defense Force
4.5.1.4 Department of Home Affairs
4.5.1.5 South African Revenue Services
4.5.1.6 Departments of Health and of Agriculture
4.5.1.7 Department of Foreign Affairs
4.5.2 INTERGOVERNMENTAL RELATIONS STRUCTURES FOR THE GREAT LIMPOPO TRANSFRONTIER PARK
4.5.2.1 National Council of Provinces
4.5.2.2 President’s Coordinating Council
4.5.2.3 Forum of South Africa Directors-General
4.5.2.4 Minister and Members of Executive Council
4.5.2.5 Committee for Environmental Coordination
4.5.2.6 South African National Biodiversity Institute
4.5.2.7 Border Control Coordinating Committee
4.5.2.8 National Interdepartmental Structure
4.5.2.9 National Advisory Forum
4.5.2.10Immigration Advisory Board
4.6 PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT
4.6.1 Directorate: Intergovernmental Relations and Protocol Services
4.6.2 Mpumalanga Province Cluster Committee
4.6.3 Mpumalanga Intergovernmental Relations Forum
4.7 LOCAL GOVERNMENT
4.8 CONCLUSION
CHAPTER FIVE: EXTRAGOVERNMENTAL RELATIONS
5.1 INTRODUCTION
5.2 DEFINITION OF THE PHENOMENON
5.3 CO-OPERATIVE GOVERNANCE
5.4 PUBLIC PARICIPATION
5.5 COMMUNITY BASED NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
5.5.1 Knowledge management and sharing
5.5.2 Indigenous knowledg
5.5.3 Ownership of resources
5.5.4 Training and capacity building
5.6 PARTNERSHIPS
5.6.1 Community-government partnership
5.6.2 Public-private partnership
5.6.3 Government-NGO partnership
5.7 BLACK ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT
5.8 CONCLUSION
CHAPTER SIX: TOURISM MANAGENMENT IN THE GREAT
LIMPOPO TRANSFRONTIER PARK
6.1 INTRODUCTION
6.2 TOURISM
6.3 ROLE-PLAYERS IN TOURISM MANAGEMENT
6.4 THE STATE OF TOURISM IN SOUTH AFRICA, MOZAMBIQUE AND ZIMBABWE
6.5 REVENUE SHARING IN THE GREAT LIMPOPO TRANSFRONTIER PARK
6.6 ECONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE OF TOURISM
6.7 CHALLENGES FACING TOURISM IN SOUTH AFRICA
6.8 CONCLUSION

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