REQUIREMENTS FOR EFFECTIVE AND EFFICIENT MANAGEMENT

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CHAPTER TWO: REQUIREMENTS FOR EEFECTIVE AND EFFICIENT MANAGEMENT

INTRODUCTION

The public expects state institutions and parastatal institutions responsible for the management of natural resources such as those found in the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park to be managed effectively and efficiently. The effective and efficient management of the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park is aimed at preserving the ecosystem for future generations. It is, therefore, necessary for one to investigate the basic requirements for effective and efficient management of the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park as the establishment of transfrontier parks is of recent origin in Southern African Development Community (SADC) and points to the evolution of a unique dimension of public administration and management. This chapter focuses on the rationale for effective and efficient public management; the principles for effective and efficient management; management skills; research and information management; adherence to ethics; conservation awareness, education, training and development; communication; control and management structures for the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park.

RATIONALE FOR EFFECTIVE AND EFFICIENT CONSERVATION MANAGEMENT

The overarching reason for preserving the environment as indicated above is the well being of the current and future generations. Earth and its inhabitants are faced with a deteriorating environment in spite of the abundance of environmental philosophy, laws and regulations. Only 8% of the earth’s water resources are fit for human consumption. The earth’s environment is the only place in the known universe that sustains life. If it should lose its ability, humankind as species, together with all other forms of life on planet earth will cease to exist. Contrary to this scary reality, humankind appears to continue destroying the natural environment on which humankind is totally dependent (Nealer 1998: 68, 69).It is inevitable that the needs of the community will always be greater than the resources available to satisfy those needs. This characteristic of the human society is evident when the population increases and exerts more pressure on the available resources (Cloete1998: 110) such as land. The scarcity of natural resources and the fact that most of them are not easy to replenish compels public institutions, parastatal institutions and members of the public to use and manage such resources sparingly. Furthermore, the South African public service must remain a body of persons of which South Africans can be proud of. Effective and efficient public management will instil pride in the eyes of members of the public. For this reason, service delivery must be continually modernized, improved and directed towards the interest of citizens. The public service is expected to simplify and modernize its management and administrative systems and processes to make them more efficient and cost effective (Kroukamp 2001: 27).
Efforts to modernise service delivery in South Africa do not focus on reducing costs only. Rather, they are aimed at ensuring that South Africans receive an ever improving mix of government services that reflect their requirements, and aimed at ensuring that the government provides these services from a stable expenditure base. The design and delivery of public services must be oriented towards the citizen and not towards the needs of the public service, current management styles or outmoded service delivery processes (Kroukamp, 2001: 27-28). The rationale for effective and efficient conservation management necessitates meticulous adherence to the principles for effective and efficient public administration and management as discussed hereunder.

PRINCIPLES FOR EFFECTIVE AND EFFICIENT PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND MANAGEMENT

Section 195 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 makes provision for basic values and principles meant to govern public administration (that is, administration on the three spheres of government, organs of state and public enterprises). The aforementioned values which are also applicable to the management of the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park include, amongst others, the following:
• a high standard of professional ethics,
• efficient, economic and effective use of resources,
• development oriented public administration,
• impartial, fair and equitable service delivery,
• responsiveness to people’s needs, and
• public participation, accountability, and transparency,
In addition to the foregoing provisions of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa,1996, the National Environmental Management Act, 1998 (Act 107 of 1998), prescribe the following principles for environmental management:
• environmental management must place the community and their needs at the forefront of its concern, and serve their physical, psychological, developmental, cultural and social interests equitably,
• development must be socially, environmentally, and economically sustainable,
• environmental management must be integrated, acknowledging that all elements of the environment are linked and interrelated, and it must take into account the effects of decisions on all aspects of the environment and all people in the environment by pursuing the selection of the best practicable environmental option,
• environmental justice must be pursued in the interest of all, including the disadvantaged
• equitable access to environmental resources,
• responsibility for environmental health and safety consequences of a policy or project,
• the protection of all interested and affected parties including the
vulnerable and disadvantaged,
• decisions must take into account the interests, needs and values of interested and affected parties,
• community well being and empowerment must be promoted through environmental education, the raising of environmental awareness, the sharing of knowledge and experience,
• decisions must be taken in an open and transparent manner and access to information be provided in terms of the applicable law,
• there must be intergovernmental co-ordination and harmonization of policies, legislation and actions relating to the environment,
• actual or potential conflicts of interest between organs of state should be resolved through conflict resolution procedures,
• global and international responsibilities relating to the environment must be discharged in the national interest,
• environment is held in public trust for the people, the beneficial use of environmental resources must serve the public interest and the environment must be protected as the people’s common heritage, and
• the vital role of women and youth in environmental management and development must be recognized and their full participation be promoted.
The White Paper on Transforming Public Service Delivery 1997 (Also known as the Batho Pele White Paper) is relevant to both the wider public sector which include parastatal institutions such as the SANParks, the South African Tourism Board, and the South African National Biodiversity Institute. The White Paper on Transforming Public Service Delivery, 1997 suggests eight Batho Pele Principles which are crucial for the improvement of service delivery. The word Batho Pele is a South African Sotho word which means people first. The following Principles are outlined in the White Paper on Transforming Public Service Delivery:
• Consultation: In terms of this principle, users of public services must be consulted about the level and quality of services they receive. SANParks provides accommodation to local and foreign tourists visiting the South African part of the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park. Feedback from tourists can help SANParks to improve its service. However, there are no means for tourists to voice their dissatisfaction about service, suggest improvements and compliment where service has surpassed their expectations (personal observation).
• Service standards: customers should be told what level and quality of services they will receive so that they are aware of what to expect.
• Access: Equal access to natural resources found in the Kruger National Park is essential as they are national assets to be enjoyed by all. The service provided by SANParks is different from other public services as the service cannot be brought where most members of the public live. Access, therefore, implies that members of the public have to travel to the Kruger National Park. Access is particularly important for poorer members of the public. It is, therefore, important for SANParks to be mindful of this principle whenever tariffs are being revised.
• Courtesy: All customers need to be treated with respect and consideration.
• Information: Customers should be given full, accurate information they are entitled to receive. SANParks is a public entity and therefore it has to be transparent. Although SANParks has a website which aims to inform members of the public about its activities, not all members of the public have access to the internet. This is particularly applicable to citizens who live near the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park.
• Openness and transparency: Customers need to be informed how SANParks, Department of environmental Affairs and Tourism, the South African Tourism Board, and the South African National Biodiversity institute are run.
• Redress: If a customer is unhappy with the standard of service delivery, such a customer should be offered an apology, full explanation and a speedy and effective remedy. When complaints are made, customers should receive a sympathetic, positive response.
• Value for money. Services must be provided in an economic and efficient manner. This principle applies to customers as well as taxpayers who are not necessarily the users of services provided by SANParks. Naidoo and Kuye (2005: 630) propose a hybrid framework that caters for sensitivities of culture, gender, religion, and ethnic origin, socio-economic and political differences. This framework suggests flexibility in the implementation of the Batho Pele and other principles. The Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park caters for the needs of the foreign tourists’ sensitivity relating to culture, religion, and ethnic origin. Du Toit and Van der Waldt (1997:86) describe principles as norms directing the conduct of people, communities, society and government. Adherence to these principles is mandatory as they are enforceable through sanctions against employees. As the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 is the supreme law and, consequently, its contravention or contravening legislation proclaimed in accordance with it may lead to sanctions for a public official or an action or lack thereof being declared unconstitutional. There seems to be agreement between different authors in Public Administration regarding what constitutes the principles of public administration. Du Toit and Van der Waldt (1997: 87), Coetzee (1988:58-69), Cloete (1998:91-114) and Hanekom (1995:18- 19) identify three principles for public administration, namely, guidelines from body politic, guidelines from community values, and legal rules. Tshikwatamba (2004: 259- 268) agrees with the foregoing principles relating to community values and further adds an African dimension to these principles. In his attempt to contextualize the guidelines from community values, Tshikwatamba (2004: 260-268) compares ubuntu with thoroughness, collectivism with balanced decision, traditionalism with fairness and reasonableness, oral tradition with effectiveness and efficiency, and spiritualism with Christian values.Furthermore, Tshikwatamba (2004:260) emphasizes that community values should be understood within the context of African communities and not the African continent as there are differences between communities in Africa. It could be argued that there will be value differences between the Mozambican, South African and Zimbabwean communities on natural resource management. These differences necessitate compromise between the three countries on matters of mutual interest in the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park. Guidelines from the body politic suggest that the legislative authority in South Africa, for instance, has the authority to make laws which eventually guide public administration. However, the administration of the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park is different from the application of legislative policies by an ordinary state department. The management of the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park depends on the guidance and leadership from ministers who are members of three independent legislatures (that is, Mozambican, South African, and Zimbabwean parliaments). The foregoing suggests the existence of a trilateral body politic as political ideologies of the ruling parties in the three countries are different. The most important aspect of this emerging collaborative management is the reconciliation of the differences for purposes of managing the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park effectively. The adherence to ethical standards will further contribute to the effective and efficient management of the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
CONTENTS PAGE
Acknowledgements
Summary
Abstract
Key terms
Declaration
CHAPTER ONE: GENERAL INTRODUCTION
1.1 INTRODUCTION
1.2 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE GREAT LIMPOPO TRANSFRONTIER PARK
1.4 PROBLEM STATEMENT
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTION
1.6 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
1.9 ETHICAL REQUIREMENTS
1.10 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
1.10.1 Data collection
1.10.2 Data analysis
1.11 SEQUENCE OF CHAPTERS
1.12 CLARIFICATION OF TERMS
1.12.1 Public Administration and public administration
1.12.2 Effectiveness
1.12.3 Efficiency
1.12.4 Environmental management
1.12.5 Management
1.12.6 Governmental relations
1.12.7 Transfrontier park
1.12.8 Transfrontier conservation area
1.12.9 Peace Park Foundation
1.12.10Conservation
1.12.11Biodiversity
1.12.12Ecosystem
1.12.13Sustainable development
1.13 CONCLUSION
CHAPTER TWO: REQUIREMENTS FOR EFFECTIVE AND EFFICIENT MANAGEMENT
2.1 INTRODUCTION
2.2 RATIONALE FOR EFFECTIVE AND EFFICIENT CONSERVATION MANAGEMENT
2.3 PRINCIPLES FOR EFFECTIVE AND EFFICIENT PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND MANAGEMENT
2.4 ADHERENCE TO ETHICAL STANDARDS
2.5 MANAGEMENT SKILLS
2.6 RESEARCH AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT
2.7 CONSERVATION AWARENESS, EDUCATION, TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
2.7.1 Conservation awareness
2.7.2 Education
2.7.3 Training and development
2.8 COMMUNICATION
2.9 CONTROL
2.9.1 Control structures for the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park
2.9.1 Parliament
2.9.1.2 Cabinet
2.9.1.3 Auditor-General
2.9.2 Governing and management structures for the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park
2.9.2.1 Trilateral Ministerial Committee
2.9.2.2 Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park Joint Management Board
2.9.2.3 Coordinating party
2.9.2.4 Management committees
2.10 CONCLUSION
CHAPTER THREE: INTERNATIONAL GOVERNMENTAL RELATIONS
3.1 INTRODUCTION
3.2 SOVEREINGTY OF THE STATE
3.3 GLOBALISATION AND THE AFRICAN RENNAISANCE
3.4 SOUTH AFRICA’S FOREIGN POLICY
3.5 INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTIONS
3.5.1 UNITED NATIONS
3.5.2 The World Bank
3.5.3 The World Conservation Union and the regional Office for Southern Africa
3.5.4 African Union
3.5.5 Southern African Development Community
3.6 BILATERAL AND MULTILATERAL RELATIONS
3.7 CONCLUSION
CHAPTER FOUR: INTERGOVERNMENTAL RELATIONS
4.1 INTRODUCTION
4.2 NATURE OF THE STATE AND SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT
4.3 CONSTITUTIONAL AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR INTERGOVERNMENTAL RELATIONS IN RESPECT OF THE GREAT LIMPOPO TRANSFRONTIER PARK
4.4 DIFFERENT FORMS OF GOVERNMENTAL RELATIONS
4.4.1 Vertical intergovernmental relations
4.4.2 Horizontal intergovernmental relations
4.5 DEPARTMENTS AND INTERGOVERNMENTAL STRUCTURES FOR THE NATIONAL SPHERE
4.5.1 Departments involved in the management of the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park
4.5.1.1 Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism
4.5.1.2 The South African Police Service
4.5.1.3 The South African National Defense Force
4.5.1.4 Department of Home Affairs
4.5.1.5 South African Revenue Services
4.5.1.6 Departments of Health and of Agriculture
4.5.1.7 Department of Foreign Affairs
4.5.2 INTERGOVERNMENTAL RELATIONS STRUCTURES FOR THE GREAT LIMPOPO TRANSFRONTIER PARK
4.5.2.1 National Council of Provinces
4.5.2.2 President’s Coordinating Council
4.5.2.3 Forum of South Africa Directors-General
4.5.2.4 Minister and Members of Executive Council
4.5.2.5 Committee for Environmental Coordination
4.5.2.6 South African National Biodiversity Institute
4.5.2.7 Border Control Coordinating Committee
4.5.2.8 National Interdepartmental Structure
4.5.2.9 National Advisory Forum
4.5.2.10Immigration Advisory Board
4.6 PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT
4.6.1 Directorate: Intergovernmental Relations and Protocol Services
4.6.2 Mpumalanga Province Cluster Committee
4.6.3 Mpumalanga Intergovernmental Relations Forum
4.7 LOCAL GOVERNMENT
4.8 CONCLUSION
CHAPTER FIVE: EXTRAGOVERNMENTAL RELATIONS
5.1 INTRODUCTION
5.2 DEFINITION OF THE PHENOMENON
5.3 CO-OPERATIVE GOVERNANCE
5.4 PUBLIC PARICIPATION
5.5 COMMUNITY BASED NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
5.5.1 Knowledge management and sharing
5.5.2 Indigenous knowledge
5.5.3 Ownership of resources
5.5.4 Training and capacity building
5.6 PARTNERSHIPS
5.6.1 Community-government partnership
5.6.2 Public-private partnership
5.6.3 Government-NGO partnership
5.7 BLACK ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT
5.8 CONCLUSION
CHAPTER SIX: TOURISM MANAGENMENT IN THE GREAT LIMPOPO TRANSFRONTIER PARK
6.1 INTRODUCTION
6.2 TOURISM
6.3 ROLE-PLAYERS IN TOURISM MANAGEMENT
6.3.1 Government
6.3.2 Conservation agencies
6.3.3 South African Tourism Board
6.3.4 Private sector
6.3.5 World Tourism Organisation
6.3.6 World Travel and Tourism Council
6.3.7 Regional Tourism Organisation of Southern Africa
6.4 THE STATE OF TOURISM IN SOUTH AFRICA, MOZAMBIQUE AND ZIMBABWE
6.4.1 South Africa
6.4.2 Mozambique
6.4.3 Zimbabwe
6.5 REVENUE SHARING IN THE GREAT LIMPOPO TRANSFRONTIER PARK
6.5.1 Possible entry fee structures
6.5.1.1 One GLTP fee
6.5.1.2 Wholly separate fees
6.5.1.3 Primary fee only
6.5.1.4 Dual fee: National or transfrontier
6.5.1.5 Discounted separate fees
6.5.2 Revenue allocation strategies
6.5.2.1 Keep what is collected
6.5.2.2 Share the funds equally
6.5.2.3 Formula for reallocation
6.5.2.4 Reallocation based on need and ability to pay
6.6 ECONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE OF TOURISM
6.7 CHALLENGES FACING TOURISM IN SOUTH AFRICA
6.7.1 Inadequate funding of tourism
6.7.2 Myopic private sector
6.7.3 Limited integration of local communities
6.7.4 Ground transportation
6.7.5 Crime
6.7.6 Regional stability
6.8 CONCLUSION
CHAPTER SEVEN: CONCLUSIONS, FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
LIST OF REFERENCES
ANNEXTURE A
ANNEXURE B
ANNEXURE C
ANNEXURE D

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