ROLE OF LABOUR ORGANISATIONS IN NATIONAL DEVELOPMEN

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Current legal environment for labour relations in Botswana

Eight ILO Conventions have been identified by the ILO’s governing body as being fundamental to the rights of human beings at work, irrespective of levels of development of individual member States. These rights are a precondition for all the others in that they provide for the necessary instruments to strive freely for the improvement of individual and collective conditions of work. Botswana has ratified fifteen Conventions including all the eight Core Conventions. The ratification of the ILO Conventions must go hand in hand with enactment of these laws so that they have a bearing on the protection of workers. The amendments to the Botswana laws passed in 2004 to align with ILO Conventions were meant to achieve the following:
 Bring Botswana more in line with relevant international labour standards;
 Strengthen collective bargaining;
 Strengthen the development of trade unions; and
 To give effect to Botswana’s international obligations.
The changes to the labour laws were effected by a series of amendments to key labour statutes which included the enactment of a new Trade Disputes Act, and significant amendments to the Trade Unions and Employers’ Organisation Act. But to what extent have the key principles to which the labour laws seek been addressed? The section below attempts to show the extent of impact of these amendments on the workers’ rights in Botswana. Currently, the major pieces of legislation governing labour relations and the rights and activities of trade unions include the following discussed below.

Trade Unions and Employers’ Organisations Act (Cap 48:01)

The Trade Unions and Employers’ Organisations Act (Cap 48:01) came into force on 1 September 1984 and was repealed on 9 July 2003 and enacted on 23 April 2004. The Act embodies the rules on formation and registration formalities for trade unions, amalgamation of trade unions, federations of trade unions as well as employers’ organisations. It also sets out the consequences of registration of the afore-mentioned bodies. More importantly, it reiterates each employee’s entrenched right to form and/or join trade unions and outlaws discrimination on the basis of trade union membership. Some of the key 2004 amendments include among others the following:
 allowing public servants to unionise for the first time, with the exception of the Botswana Defence Force, the Botswana Police, the Local Police and the Prisons Services;
 the condition requiring more than 30 employees to form a union was removed and (replaced with one where the requirement was at least one-third of the employees of an employer. Such a trade union could also apply for recognition under section 32 of the Trade Dispute Act;
 powers of the Registrar to de-register a trade union of federation if one of their officers is a non-citizen were abolished;
 restriction for members to relinquish the membership of their trade union when moving to another industry was removed;
 allowing the amalgamation of trade unions by informing the Registrar “within 14 days of it taking place” and also the formation of joint industrial councils under section 36 of the Trade Disputes Act; and
 allowing trade unions to “accept funds originating from outside Botswana”.

ROLE OF LABOUR ORGANISATIONS IN NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT

It has been observed that, like other countries in the SADC, Botswana’s economy remains monolithic and export-oriented with a weak industrial base. The dependence on the extraction of the primary resources such as diamonds and copper has not led to expansion in job creation while many other sectors have not shown any significant growth (Kanyenze, Kondo & Martens, 2006). In addition, the implementation of fiscal and macroeconomic measures such as the devaluations of the currency, increases in interest rates and inflation targeting have reduced the capacity of the private sector in creating employment. Efforts towards diversification and attraction of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) as a drive for employment creation have also remained elusive (Kanyenze, Kondo & Martens, 2006).
There are therefore several challenges arising out of the synergy of national economic policies, employment and poverty in Botswana. These challenges have reawakened labour organisations in Botswana to look beyond the core functions of collective bargaining to broader socio-economic issues that have a bearing on the workers and populace (Kalusopa, 2005:2). Labour organisations have thus over the years been engaged in issues that centre on influencing the course of national development.

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY
1.1 INTRODUCTION
1.2 DISCUSSION OF KEY TERMS AND CONCEPTS
1.3 BACKGROUND AND CONTEXTUAL SETTING OF THE STUDY
1.4 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
1.5 AIM, OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY AND RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
1.7 METHODOLOGY
1.8 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
1.9 ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS
1.10 OUTLINE OF CHAPTERS – ORGANISATION OF THE THESIS
1.11 SUMMARY
CHAPTER TWO CONTEXT OF THE STUDY
2.1 INTRODUCTION
2.2 THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF BOTSWANA
2.7 CONTEXT OF THE STUDY – LABOUR ORGANISATIONS IN BOTSWANA
2.8 ROLE OF LABOUR ORGANISATIONS IN NATIONAL DEVELOPMEN
2.9 TRENDS AND DEPTH OF E-READINESS IN BOTSWANA
2.10 E-RECORDS MANAGEMENT IN LABOUR ORGANISATIONS IN BOTSWANA
2.11 SUMMARY
LITERATURE REVIEW AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF THE STUDY 
3.1 INTRODUCTION
3.2 LITERATURE REVIEW
3.3 THEORIES, MODELS AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
3.4 LITERATURE REVIEW ON ICT UPTAKE AND USE IN LABOUR ORGANISATIONS
3.5 STRATEGIES AND GUIDELINES IN THE MANAGEMENT OF E-RECORDS IN SELECTED PARTS OF THE WORLD
3.6 LITERATURE REVIEW ON E-RECORDS MANAGEMENT AND E-RECORDS READINESS IN EAST AND SOUTHERN AFRICA
3.7 ELECTRONIC RECORDS MANAGEMENT, E-READINESS AND E-RECORDS READINESS
3.8 THE NEED FOR E-RECORDS READINESS ASSESSMENT IN LABOUR ORGANISATIONS IN BOTSWANA
3.9 SUMMARY
CHAPTER FOUR RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 
4.1 INTRODUCTION
4.2 JUSTIFICATION OF RESEARCH PARADIGM AND METHODOLOGY
4.3 RESEARCH PROCEDURES
4.4 RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY
4.5 PROCESSING AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
4.6 ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS
4.7 EVALUATION OF THE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
4.8 SUMMARY
CHAPTER FIVE PRESENTATION OF RESULTS 
CHAPTER SIX INTERPRETATION AND DISCUSSION OF RESEARCH FINDINGS
CHAPTER SEVEN SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 
LIST OF REFERENCES

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DEVELOPING AN E-RECORDS READINESS FRAMEWORK FOR LABOUR ORGANISATIONS IN BOTSWANA

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