SCHOOL COUNSELLORS’ TRAINING AND PROVISION OF SGC SERVICES

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CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED INTERNATIONAL LITERATURE ON CHALLENGES IN SCHOOL GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING SERVICES PROVISIONS

INTRODUCTION

The study sought to establish challenges in SGC services provisions for children with disabilities in Zimbabwean inclusive primary schools as context for strategizing on overcoming them and proposing a model of SGC services provisions for children with disabilities. The previous chapter presented the problem and its context. The current chapter reviews related international literature on the challenges in SGC services provisions for both children with disabilities and those ‘without’ disabilities with reference to the Humanistic theory that informed the study. The review of related international literature is structured around the sub-research questions guiding the study. The literature is presented under the following sub-headings: school counsellors’ training and provision of SGC services, material resources and provision of SGC services, stakeholders’ attitudes and the provision of SGC services and policy and legislation and SGC services provisions. The sub-headings are derived from the sub-research questions of the study. Gaps to be filled in by the present study are highlighted.
In the subsequent section, the school counsellors’ training and provision of SGC services in the international fraternity is presented with reference to the Humanistic theory that informed the study.

SCHOOL COUNSELLORS’ TRAINING AND PROVISION OF SGC SERVICES

The training of school counsellors affects the provision of SGC services for children the world over. In Ethiopia (Alemu, 2013:32), Nigeria (Eyo, Joshua & Esuong, 2010:90;Modo & George, 2013:83), the USA (Romano & Hage, 2000:754; Smith, 2006:54; Walsh, Galassi, Murphy & Park-Taylor, 2002:685), Kenya (Karangu & Muola, 2011:268), South Korea (Lee & Yang, 2008:161), South Africa (Mahlangu, 2011:240), Namibia (Mushaandja, Haihambo, Vergnani & Frank, 2013:82), Uganda (Chireshe, 2008a:iv; Rutondoki, 2000:18) and Japan (Lau & Suk-Chun, 2008:214; Yagi, 2008:145), school counsellors without formal professional preparation and training in SGC are incompetent to address in totality the academic/educational, personal/social and career/vocational concerns of children. Owing to the professional incompetency of their school counsellors, children in the above cited countries are unlikely to receive SGC services provisions that are conducive to their holistic development in accordance with the Humanistic theory that informed the study.
The shortage of formally professionally prepared and trained school counsellors is a worldwide cause for concern (Brigman & Lee, 2008:380; Burnham & Stansell, 2005:27; Butler & Constantine, 2005:55; Desmond, West & Bubenzer, 2007:174; Dixon, 2006:206; Gale & Austin, 2003:7). For instance, in Ireland, (Lynch et al, 2006:561), Scotland (Lehr & Sumararh, 2002:292), the UK (Platts & Williamson,2000:234), Zambia (Tamilenthi & Mbewa, 2012:18) and Hong Kong (Yuk Yee & Brennan, 2004:55), there is a shortage of formally professionally prepared and trained school counsellors. Some of the children in the above mentioned countries are therefore likely to be deprived of SGC services provisions.
The training of school counsellors in SGC is also an integral part of SGC services provisions for children with disabilities internationally. Professional preparation and training is a conduit for equipping school counsellors with specialized skills, knowledge, attitudes and understandings that are pivotal in effective provision of SGC services to children with disabilities (Burgess & Gutstein, 2007:82; Frye, 2005:442; Nelson Jones, 2005:34; Landa, 2007:18; Lockhart, 2003:358; Milsom, 2002:332; Myers & Johnson, 2007:1163; Zascavage & Keefe, 2004:224). Professional preparation and training fosters in school counsellors the expertise to effectively manage the heterogeneity of children with disabilities (Lines, 2002:36; Luthar, 2003:72; Mayock et al, 2009:10; Murphy, 2008:66; Platts & Williamson, 2000:74). Professionally prepared and trained school counsellors are indispensable in the holistic development of children with disabilities (Ang & Hughes, 2001:167; Bauer, Sapp & Johnson, 2000:43; Bemak & Cornely, 2002:326; Schaefer-Schiumo & Ginsberg, 2003:1; Sink & Stroh, 2003:355). With intensive professional preparation and training in SGC, school counsellors can adapt their priorities and interventions to be commensurate with the diverse unique dynamic needs of the children with disabilities and the society while maintaining the sound base of their purpose and mission (Bauer et al, 2000:43; Bemak & Cornely, 2002:326; Schaefer-Schiumo & Ginsberg, 2003:1; Milsom, 2002:332; Zascavage & Keefe, 2004:224). Intensive formal professional preparation and training in SGC is therefore foundational in the effectiveness of the school counsellors in the management and administration of SGC services provisions for children with disabilities in the international fraternity.
The lack of formally professionally trained school counsellors in the above cited countries is at variance with ‘model’ practices in SGC services provisions for children with disabilities in the international arena. Most of the above cited studies were exploratory in nature and therefore their findings may not be generalized to Zimbabwean inclusive primary schools with much accuracy and precision. The current study therefore sought to establish the nature and impact of formal professional training of school counsellors in SGC on SGC services provisions for children with disabilities in Zimbabwean inclusive primary schools using the quantitative approach to research in order to yield explanations and predictions for generalization with as much accuracy and precision as possible to other people and places.
The formal professional training of school counsellors in teacher education impacts on SGC services provisions for children internationally (Aldrich, Boustead & Heskett, 2000:271; Cooley, 2010:35; Coy, 2004:54; Gibson, 2008:67; Popham, 2010:45). Teacher education training equips school counsellors with the theory and practice of education to effectively manage and administer SGC services provisions for children. School counsellors are highly trained educators who uphold ethical and professional standards to design, implement and manage comprehensive, developmental, results-based school counselling and promote and encourage the success of children (Aldrich et al, 2000:271; Canary, 2008:437; Dyson, 2010:43; Gerstein, Crnic, Blacher & Baker, 2009:981; Green, 2003:1361; Kaminsky & Dewey, 2001:399; Karande & Kuril, 2011:20). The above cited definition accentuates the symbiotic relationship between SGC and education. Lairio and Nissila (2002b:160) reveal that Finnish school counsellors who underwent teacher training before training in SGC are effective in managing and administering SGC services provisions for children. Similarly, in Botswana (Stockton et al, 2011:10) and Zambia (Tamilenthi & Mbewa, 2012:14), school counsellors who initially trained as teachers are effective in managing and administering SGC services provisions for children. Contrarily, in South Korea (Lee & Yang, 2008:161), and Japan (Yagi, 2008:145), school counsellors without pre-service teacher training are effective in designing, managing and evaluating SGC services provisions for children.
Similarly, the training of school counsellors in Special Needs Education also affects SGC services provisions for children with disabilities because it equips school counsellors with the knowledge, skills, attitudes and understandings of SGC services provisions for children with disabilities (Abrams & Gibbs, 2000:79; Brigman & Lee, 2008:381; Canary, 2008:437; Dryfoos, 2002:393; Ferguson, 2008:109; Smith, Crutchfield & Culbreth, 2001:216). In the USA, pre-service training courses for school counsellors comprise a Special Needs Education component in order to groom school counsellors for SGC services provisions for children with disabilities (Baker & Gerler, 2001:76; Burnham & Stansell, 2005:36; Butler & Constantine, 2005:59; Desmond et al, 2007:179; Peterson, Goodman, Keller & McCauley, 2004:249). According to Barr, McLeod and Daniel (2008:21), school counsellors without in-depth training in Special Needs Education are ineffective and inefficient in managing and administering SGC services provisions for children with disabilities.

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CHAPTER 1  THE PROBLEM AND ITS CONTEXT 
1.1 INTRODUCTION
1.2 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
1.4 SUB-RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.5 OBJECTIVES
1.6 Rationale for the study
1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
1.8 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
1.9 ASSUMPTIONS
1.10 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
1.11 DELIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
1.12 DEFINITION OF TERMS
1.13 ORGANIZATION OF THE RESEARCH PROGRAMME
CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED INTERNATIONAL LITERATURE ON CHALLENGES IN SCHOOL GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING SERVICES PROVISIONS 
2.1 INTRODUCTION
2.2 SCHOOL COUNSELLORS’ TRAINING AND PROVISION OF SGC SERVICES
2.3 MATERIAL RESOURCES AND PROVISION OF SGC SERVICES
2.4 STAKEHOLDERS’ ATTITUDES AND THE PROVISION OF SGC SERVICES
2.5 POLICY AND LEGISLATION AND SGC SERVICES PROVISIONS
2.6 CONCLUSION
CHAPTER 3 REVIEW OF RELATED ZIMBABWEAN LITERATURE ON CHALLENGES IN SCHOOL GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING SERVICES PROVISIONS
3.1INTRODUCTION
3.2 THE PROVISION OF INCLUSIVE EDUCATION IN ZIMBABWE (HISTORY OF INCLUSIVE EDUCATION IN ZIMBABWE)
3.3THE NEEDS OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES IN ZIMBABWE
3.4 THE ROLE OF SCHOOL COUNSELLORS IN ZIMBABWEAN SCHOOLS
3.5 SCHOOL COUNSELLORS’ TRAINING AND PROVISION OF SGC SERVICES.
3.6 MATERIAL RESOURCES AND PROVISION OF SGC SERVICES
3.7 STAKEHOLDERS’ ATTITUDES AND THE PROVISION OF SGC SERVICES
3.8 POLICY AND LEGISLATION AND SGC SERVICES PROVISIONS
3.9 CONCLUSION
CHAPTER 4 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
4.1INTRODUCTION
4.2 RESEARCH DESIGN
4.4 INSTRUMENTATION
4.5 PILOT STUDY.
4.6 MAIN STUDY
4.7 DATA ANALYSIS
4.8 ETHICAL ISSUES
4.9 SUMMARY
CHAPTER 5 DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION 
5.1 INTRODUCTION
5.2 BIOGRAPHICAL VARIABLES OF THE RESEARCH PARTICIPANTS
5.3 SCHOOL COUNSELLORS’ TRAINING AND PROVISION OF SGC SERVICES
5.4 MATERIAL RESOURCES AND PROVISION OF SGC SERVICES
5.5 STAKEHOLDERS’ ATTITUDES AND THE PROVISION OF SGC SERVICES
5.6 POLICY AND LEGISLATION AND PROVISION OF SGC SERVICES
5.7 RESULTS ON STRATEGIES TO OVERCOME CHALLENGES IN SGC SERVICES PROVISIONS FOR CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES IN ZIMBABWEAN INCLUSIVE PRIMARY SCHOOLS
5.8 DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
5.9 CONCLUSION
CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 
6.1 INTRODUCTION
6.2 A REVIEW OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
6.3 SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS
6.4 CONCLUSION .
6.5 CONTRIBUTION OF THE STUDY
6.6 RECOMMENDATIONS
6.7 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH
6.8 FINAL COMMENTS
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