SEMANTIC TECHNOLOGY: TERMS AND TOOLS

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Theoretical Background

Before the implementation of the core ideas and views, literature review of the subject matter and relevant works previously done by other researchers are very important to build the foundation. Hence, literature review was done to explore the relevant re-search work done by other researchers, which helped us to learn insight details of the concepts that had been implemented so far as well as gives new ideas that could be used in the implementation of this research topic’s vision. In this chapter, detail de-scription of literature review done for the research topic has been presented

Existing Researcher’s competence profile creation sys-tems

There are plenty of approaches and tools that could create researchers competence profile based on publication data manually, semi -automatically or automatically. In this section we are going to introduce two typical systems, each of them has more or less problem regarding to our research. Among those problems, we will discuss and choose some of them as our main focus then define objectives of our solution

Profiles Research Networking Software (PRNS)

Profiles Research Networking Software [61], is an open source system developed by Harvard University for the purpose of finding collaborators in certain area based on researchers’ publication or research area.
Profiles Research Networking Software is funded by National Institute of Health (NIH), which helps in speeding up the process of finding researchers with specific areas of expertise for collaboration and professional networking. Profiles RNS im-ports and analyzes “white pages” information, publications, and other data sources to create and maintain a complete searchable library of web-based electronic CV’s. Built-in network analysis and data visualization tools allow administrators to generate research portfolios of their institution, discover connections between parts of their or-ganization, and understand what factors influence collaboration [61].
VIVO [60] is an open source semantic web application originally developed and im-plemented at Cornell University. When installed and populated with researcher inter-ests, activities, and accomplishments, VIVO enables the discovery of research and scholarship across disciplines at that institution. VIVO supports browsing and a search function for returning faceted results for rapid retrieval of desired information. The original purpose of VIVO is to create ontology to store the information about the researchers. Besides, it also provides the application that uses this ontology.
Content in any local VIVO installation may be maintained manually, brought into VIVO in automated ways from local systems of record, such as HR, grants, course, and faculty activity databases, or from database providers such as publication aggre-gators and funding agencies.
VIVO is a Java web application that runs over the Tomcat servlet container. It uses numerous open source libraries including HP’s Jena semantic web framework. It is currently available under the terms of the Open Source Initiative BSD License [60]

Researcher competence profile and competence model-ing

To build the researcher’s competence profile and model, we first have to understand the concept of competence, which is actually a complex term [16] to understand. Definition given by several of the scholars and organization about competence is ac-tually not enough to be accepted by whole community member of different research field. The most formidable definition of competence so far can be found in [17]. Ac-cording to Coi [17], competence consists of three underlying dimensions:

  • ØØ Competency – represents skills
  • ØØ Context – domain for using skills
  • ØØ Proficiency level – expertise level of skill for performing task.

So, while making a competence profile in any domain, these three dimensions should be considered. The term competence profile is very often used in the field of human resource management (HRM) to describe the well structured documents that consist of different sets of competence and skills either defining the ability of the employee or that the job under consideration needs. Level of each competence is quantifiable [3]. HR-XML, the technical consortium working to standardize the HR-XML define competency as “a specific, identifiable, definable and measurable knowledge, skill, ability and/or other employment-related characteristic (e.g., attitude, behavior, physi-cal ability) which a human resource may possess and which is necessary for, or mate-rial to, the performance of an activity within a specific business context”. Based on above definition, competency can be seen as a smallest set of capability or the com-bination of resources in a specific context for accomplishing an object or mission ef-fectively and efficiently.
Competence modeling thus can be seen as process of understanding and capturing the information about different competence shown by individual or organization in more intuitive way. Vladimir et. Al[16], used the enterprise modeling techniques for cap-turing the existing competence of enterprises and individual so that they can be evalu-ated systematically. While modeling the competence, it is very important to see the relation of competency with the work situation and also that the proper evaluation or weighing of the competence is needed.
So, in the context of Researchers, the competence profile not only should be able to show the general competency of the researcher but also should be able to give detail about the research work area or the research field of interest, the information about previous works accomplished and the information about any publication the research-er is associated with. The competence profile having more relevant information about the researcher would be considered better/thicker profile in terms of information.

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 Bibliographic /Publication Data Sources

The core idea of the thesis is to generate researcher’s profile from the different ac-complished research work done and their corresponding papers published on the work within different bibliographic data repositories. The method gives a high degree of reliability in so produced profiles of researchers. Hence the first work was to do a throughout study of such available repositories to have needed access to them. Below are the details of some of the data sources we studied

Three Examples of Bibliographic Data Sources

Diva

DiVA is an online data archive and research publication finding tool of academic re-search publication by researchers/teachers/students and student thesis written at 30 different universities and higher education colleges (see appendix). DIVA was initi-ated by the EPC at Uppsala University Library in the year 2000 A.D to preserve the academic and research work for long term. Bibliographic registrations of documents from 1995 can be found in DiVA with some document being older too. Participating universities and publicly financed research institutions are from all across Sweden and abroad too. The technical development of DiVA is being carried out by EPC in col-laboration with all the participating institutions.
All the participating institutions have their own local interface of DIVA portal and research publications. Student thesis can be published and registered locally at the university or college of origin with the bibliographic information for every title, ab-stract and a link to full text [10].
DiVA contains more than 11,000 publications in full text, most of them being doctoral thesis, research papers from different academic researchers, student thesis, reports, articles and publications of different types. In addition to the publications, the DiVA repository also holds records of more than 130,000 references to the publications produced by the different researchers and employees from different Universities. Moreover, DiVA is a freely accessible full text archive for everyone to read, down-load and print out. The authors/publishers of the documents retain the full copyrights of their work if any republication or other use of the document is needed [11]. The DiVA repository helps researchers and students to have easy access to numerous pub-lications and also preserves them securely for long time.

PubMed/Medline

U.S National Library of Medicine (NLM) has indexed the biological literature since 1879 in an effort to facilitate health professionals to have a convenient access to in-formation on different research work, experiments and other relevant information from all across the world. This information will help the health professional in their own research work, health care that they being providing to their patient and also en-hance their knowledge and education. The printed indexed database is known as the MEDLINE database, which contains journal citations, titles and author names includ-ing the abstract etc. for biomedical literature from all around the world. MEDLINE has been publicly available to general users as well from 1996 as free access and U.S National Library of Medicine National Institute of Health (NIH) provide web inter-face to the repository search tool known as PUBMED:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/.  Most  of  the  PubMed  data  come  from MEDLINE citations [2], which is actually the largest component of PubMed. The MEDLINE records are indexed according the controlled vocabulary developed by NLM known as the MeSH (Medical Subject Heading) vocabulary.
PubMed web interface can be used to search the information from various other data repository apart from the PubMed and MEDLINE data-repositories. Using PubMed, user can have access to over 21 millions records from different biological literature.

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IEEE

IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) is the world’s largest profes-sional association dedicated to the advancing technological innovation and excellence for the benefit of humanity. The history of the IEEE is rooted to 1884 and earlier, when development of electricity and other communication system was growing fast all over the world. The main aim of the association was to help professionals in their nascent field and to aid them in their endeavor to apply innovation for the betterment of humanity [7].
IEEE now has more than 400,000 members including the professionals and students in over 160 countries of the world with the publications documents exceeding three millions. IEEE publishes about one third of world’s total technical literature in elec-trical engineering, computer science and electronics. The IEEE documents can be ex-plored from the IEEE Xplore Digital Library; statistics shows that the documents are being downloaded over eight millions time each month from its repository. Apart from maintaining the staggering collection of technical documents, journals, maga-zines, conference papers etc., the main contribution of IEEE in developing the inter-national standards that governs the major of the telecommunications, information technology and other services [7][8]. Apart from that, IEEE uses INSPEC Thesaurus to assign most appropriate terms or preferred terms to represent/index the source documents. Such terms are assigned by subject specialists and termed as “controlled terms” in XML output generated by IEEE Xplore gateway [53].

Citation of Publication and keywords

Publication repositories (PubMed, IEEE etc.) as mentioned above, receive the publi-cation from different publishers/researchers mostly in electronic forms using scanning and Optical Character Recognition (OCR)[2][7][53]. These publication organizations have different policies to publish such publication. For instance, PubMed has definite status of the published document according to the case of the publication. When a publication is first published as it was send by publisher, the status of such document is clearly mentioned as “as supplied by publisher” so that it is clear to readers

1 Introduction
1.1 BACKGROUND
1.2 PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES
1.3 LIMITATIONS
1.4 THESIS OUTLINE
2 Theoretical Background 
2.1 EXISTING RESEARCHER’S COMPETENCE PROFILE CREATION SYSTEMS
2.2 RESEARCHER COMPETENCE PROFILE AND COMPETENCE MODELING
2.3 BIBLIOGRAPHIC /PUBLICATION DATA SOURCES
2.4 DATA INTEGRATION APPROACHES
2.5 CHALLENGES IN BIBLIOGRAPHIC DATA SOURCE INTEGRATION FOR RESEARCHERS’ PROFILE
2.6 AUTHOR NAME DISAMBIGUATION IN BIBLIOGRAPHIC DIGITAL LIBRARY
2.7 SEMANTIC TECHNOLOGY: TERMS AND TOOLS
2.8 THE ROLE OF ONTOLOGY IN DATA SOURCE INTEGRATION
2.9 SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW
3 Research Methods
3.1 RESEARCH METHODS IN INFORMATION SYSTEM .
3.2 IMPLEMENTATION OF DSR
3.3 DESIGN OPTIONS FOR SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT
3.4 RESEARCH FRAMEWORK
4 Realization
4.1 STUDY OF EXISTING SYSTEM APPROACHES
4.2 SPECIAL FEATURES AND DELIMITATION OF EXISTING PROFILE CREATION APPROACHES
4.3 PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS
4.4 METHOD FOR COMPETENCY PROFILE SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT
4.5 LAYERED-ARCHITECTURE OF PROFILE CREATION SOFTWARE
4.6 ONTOLOGY BASED RESEARCHERS COMPETENCE MODELING
4.7 REUSE OF WELL KNOWN VOCABULARY AND ONTOLOGIES FOR INTEROPERABILITY
4.8 REFINED RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
5 Results 
5.1 RESULT FROM THE REALIZATION
5.2 PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT USING AGILE (SCRUM) SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT METHODOLOGY
5.3 IMPLEMENTATION DETAILS AND SCREENSHOTS
5.4 SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION
6 Conclusion and Reflection 
6.1 CONCLUSION
6.2 REFLECTION
7 Recommendation and Future work 
7.1 RECOMMENDATIONS
7.2 FUTURE WORK
8 References 
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