Sizing Method of a Hybrid Renewable-based System for a Stand- Alone Site

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Stand-Alone Maritime Site Suitable Renewable Energy Systems

This thesis focuses on stand-alone maritime sites situated in the north Atlantic near the western European shore. The load of such islanded sites varies with its nature and population. For example, the load in Ouessant island varies around a few MW. Therefore, three possible renewable energy sources will be presented: offshore wind turbines, tidal turbines, and wave generators. Furthermore, and in order to better understand the performance of such maritime systems, the two most common onshore renewable energy sources will be also presented: onshore wind turbines and photo-voltaic solar panels.

Onshore wind turbine

An onshore wind turbine is a turbine based electrical generator, it transforms the kinetic energy of the wind to electrical energy, and it is located onshore. Wind turbines are well developed and mature system, reaching a mark of 9 on the TRL scale (technology readiness level) [21, 22], which makes it one of the most developed renewable energy systems. The largest operating wind farm is the Gansu wind farm in china (fig.1.1), with a production capacity of 5160 MW [23, 24].
In addition to its high maturity and large scale existing installations, onshore wind turbines are one of the cheapest renewable energy systems. In fact, referring to IRENA (international renewable energy agency) the cost of a wind turbine depends heavily on the site characteristics, but it is roughly estimated by a total capital cost between 1.85 $ and 2.1 $ perW of installation and a total production cost of 0.08 $ to 0.14 $ per kWh of production [25, 26]. Onshore wind turbine is the most used renewable energy technology, it presents the lowest costs and the highest maturity. Furthermore, wind energy is a very reliable source of energy in the chosen site location. However, wind turbine farms needs large space to be built, which might present difficulties in a small stand-alone islanded site as Ouessant. Moreover, they can cause noise due to vibrations. For the reasons cited above, onshore wind turbines will be avoided in this study.

Energy Storage Systems Suitable for Stand-Alone Maritime Site

In this studied, an islanded site is considered. In such study case, both the load of the island and the renewable energy production will be highly intermittent. Therefore, balancing the production and the load on the gird presents a key feature. For these reasons, it is necessary to optimize the system behavior by associating an energy storage system to the renewable energy sources. In fact, energy storage systems can store electricity or transform electrical energy into other forms of energy and storing it in the process. Different energy storage systems can be applied to an islanded site. The more used ones will be presented in this part of the study.

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Pumped hydroelectric storage

Pumped hydroelectric storage (PHS) (fig.1.6) presents the largest energy storage capacity form for grid applications (about 95% of the total energy stored) [41, 42]. Such systems use the gravity potential energy of the water for storage purposes. In fact, at times of low demand, excess generation capacity is used to pump water from a lower reservoir into a higher one. When power is needed, water is released back into the lower reservoir threw a turbine, generating electricity [43]. The largest PHS station is the Bath country station in the U.S.A., with a production capacity of 3 GW [41, 42].

Table of contents :

Abstract
Acknowledgements
Introduction
1 State of the Art of Renewable Energy and Energy Storage Systems Technologies in a Stand Alone Maritime Context 
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Stand-Alone Maritime Site Suitable Renewable Energy Systems
1.2.1 Onshore wind turbine
1.2.2 Photovoltaic panel
1.2.3 Offshore wind turbine
1.2.4 Tidal turbine
1.2.5 Wave power
1.3 Energy Storage Systems Suitable for Stand-Alone Maritime Site
1.3.1 Pumped hydroelectric storage
1.3.2 Compressed air
1.3.3 Batteries
1.4 Offshore Energy transmission
1.5 Renewable Energy Systems Regulation
1.5.1 Vector Control
1.5.2 Observer-Based Control
1.6 Conclusion
2 Methodology of Analysis of the Energy Resource and the Energy Storage System for the Studied Stand-Alone Site 
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Ouessant Island Energy Consumption
2.3 Wind Characteristics on the Island
2.3.1 Resource Characteristics
2.3.2 Turbine Properties
2.4 Tidal Characteristics in the Area Around the Island
2.4.1 Introduction
2.4.2 Existing measurements
2.4.3 Marine current velocity
2.4.4 Tidal energy and turbine properties
2.4.5 Turbine Properties
2.5 Solar Characteristics on the Island
2.6 Diesel Generators
2.7 Pumped Hydroelectric System
2.8 Conclusion
3 Sizing Method of a Hybrid Renewable-based System for a Stand- Alone Site 
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Hybrid Renewable-based Farm Control Strategy
3.3 Sizing and Optimization Objectives
3.4 Simulation Results and Discussion
3.4.1 Results using fixed ESS, wind turbine, and tidal turbine models sizes
3.4.2 ESS sizes variation
3.4.3 Reducing wind turbine sizes
3.5 Conclusion
4 Design and Analysis of Inverter Control Methods for Micro-grid Applications in a Stand-Alone Site 
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Design and Analysis of Single Inverter Regulation for Renewable Energy-based Systems
4.2.1 System Elements Description
4.2.2 P/Q Control Strategy
4.2.3 V/f Control Strategy
4.2.4 IVSG Control Strategy
4.2.5 Simulation Results
4.3 Design and Analysis of Inverter Control Methods in a Multi- Source Case
4.3.1 Traditional Droop Control Strategy
4.3.2 VSG Control Strategy
4.3.3 Simulation Results
4.3.4 Comparison and Discussion
4.4 Application to the Renewable Sources-based System for Ouessant Island
4.4.1 Introduction
4.4.2 System Elements Description
4.4.3 Simulation Results and System Performances Analysis
4.5 Conclusion
Conclusion and Perspectives
A Power Scheme of the Full System
B IVSG Block Diagram

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