SOCIO-EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE MORAL DECAY IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN SOCIETY

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CHAPTER 2 VALUES, MORALITY AND THE IMPORTANCE OF POSITIVE MORAL DEVELOPMENT FOR SOCIETY

INTRODUCTION

In the previous chapter it was pointed out that the present-day South African society is undergoing a serious value crisis. This moral decay in the society is evident in amongst others, the high crime rate, the lack of discipline at home and at school, substance abuse, prostitution, and general lawlessness and corruption by many members of society.In this chapter the concept values and other related concepts such as morality, religion and a life- and worldview will be defined and discussed, because it is important to know what these concepts implicate and how they relate to values. The importance of positive moral development for a well-functioning society and the effects of the lack thereof will also be discussed.

ANALYSIS OF THE CONCEPT VALUES

From the previous chapter it is evident that many authors agree that the moral decay of society is caused by people’s inability to comply with positive values. It is therefore important to discuss what values are and where they originate from. Clarity on the origin of the concept values and its meaning will provide an indication of the role they play in the lives of human beings and in society. However, to define the concept values is not an easy task, especially because it is closely related to other concepts such as norms, ethics and principles. In everyday spoken language, people use these concepts as synonyms, or interchangeably. What further complicates the definition is the fact that its origin cannot be understood without explaining concepts like religion and a life- and worldview. An attempt will, however, be made to clarify the concept and its origin within the context of this research project.According to De Klerk & Rens (2003:355) values are first and foremost the result of the application of a person’s principles which he/she obtains from his/her life- and worldview, which in turn is grounded in one’s religion. Religion is thus often an important source of values. Your religion teaches you what is right and what is wrong. From a Christian perspective the term values is often explained by making reference to the Bible. Many values, like mutual love and honesty have their origin in Scripture. For Christians morality is part (or should be part) of their every day lives. Although the concepts values and principles are closely related, they are not the same. De Klerk & Rens (2003:355) claim that both are human-related and give direction to our existence on earth, but principles are deep fundamental truths that have a universal application. Strauss (1978:303) defines a principle as ‘a relatively constant and universal unit’ that we as humans are subjected to. From a Biblical perspective, principles are the primary source, and when acting in accordance with principles, people obtain or decide on a personal value system. (Religious) values are very powerful values in determining behaviour because they not only have to do with our relationship with other people, but also with our relationship with God. To a believer in God, there are laws that determine what is right and what is wrong. To break these laws means you are committing a sin that brings separation between you and God. Christian values are derived from, or originate from Biblical principles which in turn have their origin in Scripture. A principle can therefore be seen as a starting point from which values are derived. According to the South African Council for Educators (SACE) (2002:60), for the Christian the following are, or should be the guiding principles in his or her life:
a) A personal and trusting relationship with God as Father, and not only rigid adherence to religious laws.
b) Good relationships and care among Christians are essential to moral growth (Love one another as I have loved you – John 13:34).
c) Concern for the political and economic affairs of human society.
d) A rejection of violence – the pursuit of Christian ends through non-violent means (Love your enemies and those who persecute you – Matthew 5:39 and 44).
e) A readiness to forgive those who offend, injure or harm you (Seventy times seven – Matthew 18:22).
f) A willingness to suffer and even to die for one’s convictions (Whoever loses his life for My sake will save it – Luke 9:24 and The greatest love a person can have for his friends is to give his life for them – John 15:13).
Thus, from the directives and teachings of the Ten Commandments and other Biblical principles, issues of morality and ethics concern not only people like theologists, educationists and philosophers, but also everyday, ordinary people (Stevenson
2002:27).

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTORY ORIENTATION, STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM, AIM OF THE RESEARCH, RESEARCH DESIGN, METHODOLOGY AND RESEARCH PROGRAMME
1.1 INTRODUCTORY ORIENTATION 
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 
1.2.1 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.3 AIM OF THE RESEARCH 
1.4 MOTIVATION, RELEVANCE AND VALUE OF THE RESEARCH 
1.5 RESEARCH DESIGN
1.5.1 LITERATURE STUDY
1.5.2 EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION
1.5.3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
1.5.3.1 THE POPULATION SAMPLE
1.5.4 ANALYSIS OF THE DATA
1.5.5 ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS
1.6 DEMARCATION OF THE RESEARCH AREA 
1.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY 
1.8 CLARIFICATION OF CONCEPTS 
1.8.1 EDUCATION
1.8.2 SOCIO-EDUCATION AND SOCIO-EDUCATIONAL CONCEPTS
1.8.3 MORAL EDUCATION
1.8.4 CULTURE
1.8.5 VALUES
1.8.6 SOCIETY
1.8.7 COMMUNITY
1.8.8 SOCIO-EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE MORAL DECAY IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN SOCIETY
1.9 THE RESEARCH PROGRAMME 
1.10 CONCLUSION 
CHAPTER 2 VALUES, MORALITY AND THE IMPORTANCE OF POSITIVE MORAL DEVELOPMENT FOR SOCIETY
2.1 INTRODUCTION 
2.2 ANALYSIS OF THE CONCEPT VALUES 
2.2.1 CLASSIFICATION OF VALUES
2.2.2 VALUES AND THEIR ROLE IN SOCIETY
2.3 ANALYSIS OF THE CONCEPT RELIGION
2.4 ANALYSIS OF THE CONCEPT LIFE- AND WORLDVIEW 
2.5 VALUES, MORALITY AND MORAL DEVELOPMENT
2.5.1 THEORIES ON MORALITY AND MORAL DEVELOPMENT
2.5.1.1 NICHOMACEAN ETHICS
2.5.1.2 KANTIAN ETHICS
2.5.1.3 THE FREUDIAN PSYCHO-ANALYTIC THEORY
2.5.1.4 DURKHEIM’S THEORY ON MORALITY
2.5.1.5 THE PIAGETIAN COGNITIVE APPROACH
2.5.1.6 KOHLBERG’S THEORY OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT
2.6 CONCLUSION 
CHAPTER 3 THE MORAL DEGENERATION OF THE PRESENT-DAY SOUTH AFRICAN SOCIETY
3.1 INTRODUCTION 
3.2 FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO MORAL DEGENERATION 
3.2.1 UNWILLINGNESS TO ADHERE TO VALUES
3.2.2 SECULARIZATION
3.2.3 THE DISINTEGRATION OF FAMILY AND COMMUNITY LIFE
3.2.4 THE LINK BETWEEN CRIME AND THE GROWING EMPHASIS ON OWN SELFISH DESIRES
3.2.5 MORAL DISINTEGRATION AND THE RESULTANT SUBSTANCE ABUSE
3.2.6 THE LINK BETWEEN MORAL AND SEXUAL LICENTIOUSNESS AND THE HIV/AIDS PANDEMIC
3.2.7 EMPHASIS ON INDIVIDUAL HUMAN RIGHTS AND CHILDREN’S RIGHTS
3.3 THE MORAL CRISIS IN SOUTH AFRICAN SCHOOLS 
3.4 CONCLUSION 
CHAPTER 4 THE TASK AND ROLE OF SOCIETAL STRUCTURES IN PROMOTING VALUES IN SOCIETY AND IN THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN
4.1 INTRODUCTION 
4.2 AN EXPLORATION OF THE FIELD OF SOCIO-EDUCATION 
4.3 THE NATURE AND AIM OF EDUCATION 
4.4 STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF SOCIETAL INSTITUTIONS 
4.5 THE FAMILY AND ITS ROLE IN THE EDUCATION OF ITS CHILDREN 
4.5.1 THE CONCEPT FAMILY
4.5.2 THE INDIVIDUALITY STRUCTURE OF THE FAMILY
4.5.3 THE ROLE AND FUNCTION OF THE FAMILY
4.5.4 PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT IN SCHOOL-TYPICAL EDUCATION
4.6 THE TASK AND ROLE OF THE SCHOOL IN EDUCATION 
4.6.1 THE INDIVIDUALITY STRUCTURE OF THE SCHOOL
4.6.2 THE SCHOOL AS AN INSTITUTION FOR TEACHING AND FOR THE TRANSMISSION OF VALUES
4.6.3 THE SCHOOL IN A MULTICULTURAL SOUTH AFRICAN SOCIETY
4.6.3.1 THE MEANING OF THE CONCEPT CULTURE IN A MULTICULTURAL LEARNING ENVIRONMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
4.7 THE STATE AND ITS ROLE IN EDUCATION 
4.8 THE CHURCH AND ITS ROLE IN EDUCATION 
4.9 CONCLUSION 
CHAPTER 5 RESEARCH METHODS AND RESEARCH DESIGN
5.1 INTRODUCTION 
5.1.1 PROBLEM FORMULATION AND RESEARCH QUESTIONS
5.2 RESEARCH METHODS 
5.2.1 QUALITATIVE RESEARCH AND THE RATIONALE FOR ADOPTING THE QUALITATIVE RESEARCH METHOD
5.2.2 DATA COLLECTION METHODS
5.2.2.1 THE QUESTIONNAIRE AS A DATA GATHERING TOOL
5.2.2.2 FOCUS GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL INTERVIEWS
5.2.2.3 THE RECORDING OF THE INTERVIEWS
5.3 RESEARCH DESIGN 
5.4 THE ROLE OF THE RESEARCHER 
5.5 THE SELECTION OF THE SCHOOLS AND THE PARTICIPANTS 
5.5.1 THE SELECTION AND PROFILE OF THE SCHOOLS
5.5.2 THE SELECTION AND PROFILE OF THE PARTICIPANTS
5.5.2.1 THE LEARNERS
5.5.2.2 THE TEACHERS
5.5.2.3 THE PRINCIPALS
5.5.2.4 THE PARENTS
5.5.2.5 THE COMMUNITY LEADERS
5.6 DATA PROCESSING
5.6.1 PROCESSING THE QUESTIONNAIRES
5.6.2 THE TRANSCRIPTION AND THEMATIC COLLATION OF EVIDENCE
5.6.3 THE SORTING AND CODING OF THE TRANSCRIPTS
5.7 DATA ANALYSIS
5.7.1 ANALYZING THE RESPONSES TO THE QUESTIONNAIRES
5.7.2 CREATING PLAUSIBLE INTERPRETATIONS OF FINDINGS
5.7.3 TESTING FOR TRUSTWORTHINESS
5.7.3.1 VALIDITY
5.7.3.2 RELIABILITY
5.7.3.3 AUTHENTICITY
5.8 ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN RESEARCH
5.9 RELATING THE ARGUMENT TO RELEVANT RESEARCH IN LITERATURE 
5.10 THE SIGNIFICANCE AND RELEVANCE OF THE STUDY 
5.11 CONCLUSION 
CHAPTER 6 ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION OF THE DATA
6.1 INTRODUCTION 
6.2 ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION OF THE QUESTIONNAIRES 
6.3 ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION OF THE FINDINGS OF THE INTERVIEWS 
6.3.1 FINDINGS FROM THE INTERVIEWS WITH LEARNERS
6.3.2 FINDINGS FROM THE INTERVIEWS WITH ADULT PARTICIPANTS
6.3.3 LINKING THE THEMES TO THE OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH
6.4 CONCLUSIONS ON THE OUTCOME OF THE EMPIRICAL STUDY
CHAPTER 7 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
7.1 INTRODUCTION
7.2 AN OVERVIEW OF THE STUDY 
7.3 DEGREE TO WHICH THE AIMS OF THE RESEARCH HAVE BEEN MET 
7.4 RECOMMENDATIONS 
7.4.1 GUIDELINES FOR TRANSFORMING THE MORAL FIBER OF SOCIETY AND OF SCHOOLS
7.4.1.1 THE PARENTS’ RESPONSIBILITY IN IMPARTING VALUES TO CHILDREN
7.4.1.2 THE SCHOOL’S ROLE IN THE PROVISION OF MORAL EDUCATION
7.4.1.3 THE RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY AND OTHER SOCIETAL STRUCTURES
7.4.2 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
7.4.3 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH
7.5 FINAL CONCLUSION
BIBLIOGRAPHY 
APPENDICES

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