SUSTAINABILITY IN THE CONTE XT OF TOURISM AND EVENT SPORTS TOURISM

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INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

The need to take responsibility for protection of the natural environment is a contemporary issue of growing importance and urgency across industries worldwide. Tourism has duly been recognised as an agent of change that can have a significant effect on the environment and being ‘green’ appears to have become a mission of a substantial part of the industry (Holden, 2009:xix). The sports industry has similarly taken responsibility for its impact on the environment and a number of sustainability initiatives across the industry give evidence to this (Mallen, Stevens & Adams, 2011:240; Schmidt, 2006). Sports tourism, as the subject area where these two industries meet, has seen an increase in both practitioner and academic initiatives to measure and manage impacts on the environment (Hinch & Higham, 2011). A growing awareness of the threat posed by both tourism and sport as leisure activities has also manifested along with intensifying conscience within leisure studies (Mansfield & Wheaton, 2011). The term sport tourism has been defined in many ways, with a fair share of debates surrounding the use of terminology (Hinch & Higham, 2011; Shipway, 2007b; Weed, 2009). The definitions of Hinch and Higham (2001), Gibson (1998), Standeven and De Knop (1999), as well as Gammon and Robinson (2003), focus on sport as a type of tourist attraction. Weed and Bull (2004)’s definition of sport tourism changes the focus from it being a large market niche based on the attraction (sport), to viewing it as a collection of separate niches (discussed in Hinch & Higham, 2005). They define sports tourism as “a social, economic and cultural phenomena arising from the unique integration of activity, people and place” (Weed & Bull, 2004:37). For the purpose of this study, the word sports tourism (as opposed to sport tourism, sports-tourism and sport-related tourism) is used. Weed (2009) states that sports tourism is related to both sport and tourism, yet it is more than the sum of its parts; with the interaction between the two as the unique element. The focus should be on sports tourism as a concept, instead of sport (the wider social institution) as the reason for tourism. In this definition ‘sports’ refers to a collection of heterogeneous activities (Weed, 2005) and a deliberate break is made from conceptualising sport tourism within the parameters of sport and tourism separately (Hinch & Higham, 2011).

PURPOSE STATEMENT

This research study aims to fill the gap in knowledge on ERB of consumers within the context of event sports tourism. The purpose is to identify the factors that could have the greatest possibility to influence sport event spectators’ propensity to display ERB. In an effort to obtain extensive insight into the concept and to develop exhaustive lists of factors, selective knowledge from different disciplines and subject areas will be utilised. This will be done by combining related knowledge from the fields of tourism (tourist behaviour), sport (spectator motivation and behaviour), as well as parent disciplines (psychology) and other relevant subject areas (Environmental Education and Consumer Behaviour). Even though the gap that has been identified centres around a demand-side perspective, it is important to also explore industry initiatives that can possibly contribute to (influence) the ERB of event sports tourists. Despite the fact that people are more likely to display ERB if they are ‘environmentally friendly’ individuals than when they are merely being educated and motivated to display such behaviour at the destination (Dolnicar & Grün, 2009), it would still be important to understand the strategies that the industry are employing to use tourists (consumers) as partners toward sustainability.

RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

The main aim of this study is to develop a model depicting the most relevant and significant factors driving ERB among sport event spectators. Such a model could assist sport event organisers in identifying elements within their environmental management systems (EMSs) that require modification or greater consideration toward more effective management of an event’s ecological footprint. The model could also serve as a tool through which to assess the levels of environmental responsibility of diverse sport tourist segments, thereby aiding destination and event marketers and managers in more accurate target market selection and marketing/communication strategies toward environmental sustainability of the destination. In order to fulfil the overall purpose of the study, the researcher aims to achieve the following research objectives:
1. to explore environmentally sustainable practices within the event sports tourism industry; 2. to identify factors underlying ERB of individuals; 3. to identify the components of tourist behaviour that relate to environmental responsibility;  4.to identify the components of sport spectator behaviour that relate to environmental responsibility; 5. to explore expert opinions on the factors that could influence sport event spectators’ ERB; 6. to develop a conceptual model depicting the factors that could influence ERB amongst sport event spectators; 7. to design a measuring instrument to test the factors underlying ERB of sport event spectators; and 8. to test the relevance of the model amongst sport event spectators at a series of outdoor cycling events. To achieve these objectives, an appropriate strategy of enquiry has to be developed. The research process and chosen methodology will now be explained.

RESEARCH APPROACH AND METHODOLOGY

Various steps are followed to reach the objectives of the study. Figure 1 provides a graphical depiction of the different stages. The process starts off with an exploration of the literature to meet objectives 1 to 4. A first empirical phase takes on a qualitative approach (objective 5) that, together with the literature review, leads to a conceptual model (objective 6). The completed objectives guide the design of the measuring instrument (objective 7). The second empirical phase (objective 8) then produces data that is analysed and interpreted in order to refine the model (objective 9).

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
ABSTRACT
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION  
1.1 INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
1.3 PURPOSE STATEMENT
1.4 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
1.5 RESEARCH APPROACH AND METHODOLOGY
1.5.1 Empirical research design
1.5.2 Sampling
1.5.3 Data analysis and results
1.6 ACADEMIC CONTRIBUTION OF THE STUDY
1.7 INDUSTRY RELEVANCE OF THE STUDY
1.8 DELIMITATIONS AND ASSUMPTIONS
1.8.1 Delimitations
1.8.2 Assumptions
1.9 FRAMEWORK FOR THE STUDY
1.10 CONCLUSION
CHAPTER 2: SUSTAINABILITY IN THE CONTE XT OF TOURISM AND EVENT SPORTS TOURISM
2.1 INTRODUCTION
2.2 THE ENVIRONMENTAL DIMENSION OF SUSTAINABILITY
2.2.1 Definitions and dimensions of sustainability
2.2.2 Rationale for focus on the natural environment in this study
2.3 ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY IN TOURISM
2.3.1 The relationship between tourism and the environment
2.3.2 Corporate Environmental Responsibility (CER) in the tourism industry
2.3.3 The move toward Responsible Tourism (RT)
2.3.4 Greening of the tourism events sector
2.4 ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY IN EVENT SPORTS TOURISM
2.4.1 Event sports tourism as a significant sub-sector of sports tourism
2.4.2 The relationship between sport and the natural environment
2.4.3 Moving from environmental impact management to environmental legacy
2.4.4 CER in the event sports industry
2.5 CONCLUSION
CHAPTER 3: FACTORS DRIVING THE CONTRIBUTION OF SPECTATORS TOWARD AN ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE EVENT
3.1 INTRODUCTION
3.2 DEFINING THE CONTRIBUTION THAT SPECTATORS CAN MAKE TOWARD ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY OF AN EVENT
3.2.1 Intending to display responsible behaviour in the setting
3.2.2 Showing environmental commitment through future intended behaviour
3.3 THE ORIGINS OF ENVIRONMENTALLY RESPONSIBLE BEHAVIOUR (ERB)
3.3.1 Brief introduction to the study of behaviour in tourism
3.3.2 Views from Environmental Psychology
3.3.2.1 Defining Environmental Psychology and ERB
3.3.2.2 Factors underlying ERB for sustainable development
3.3.3 Views from Environmental Education
3.3.4 Views from Consumer Behaviour
3.3.4.1 Defining environmental consumerism and the attitude-behaviour gap
3.3.4.2 Personal factors influencing environmental consumerism
3.3.4.3 Understanding the behavioural setting
3.4 EXISTING THEORIES OF ERB
3.4.1 Models of ERB based on rational choice
3.4.2 Models of ERB based on the activation of norms and values
3.4.3 Models combining pro-social (NAM) and self-interest (TPB) approaches
3.4.4 Concluding remarks on factors and models emerging from the literature
3.5 TOURISTS AND SPORT SPECTATORS AS RESPONSIBLE CONSUMERS
3.5.1 Tourists as consumers
3.5.2 Sports participants as consumers
3.5.3 Tourists moving toward responsible consumption                                                                        3.5.4 Sports participants moving toward responsible consumption
3.6 SUMMARY OF TOURISM AND SPORT STUDIES USING EXISTING ERBTHEORIES OR MODELS
3.7 CONCLUSION                                                                                                                                CHAPTER 4: CONCEPTUAL MODEL AND EXPOSITION OF FACTORS 
4.1 INTRODUCTION
4.2 CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF SPECTATORS’ ENVIRONMENTAL BEHAVIOUR
4.2.1 Basic explanation of the model
4.2.2 Additional comments on the layout and choice of factors
4.3 EXPLANATION OF THE MODEL AND FORMULATION OF HYPOTHESES
4.3.1 Behavioural aspects to be measured (outcome variables)
4.3.2 The role of ATT
4.3.3 The role of SJN
4.3.4 The role of PBC
4.3.5 The role of the EMS
4.3.6 The influence of BNFT on STI
4.3.7 The role of PEA
4.3.8 The role of MOTV
4.4 CONCLUSION
CHAPTER 5: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 
5.1 INTRODUCTION
5.2 RESEARCH PARADIGM AND BROAD DESIGN
5.3 MIXED METHOD RESEARCH
5.4 QUALITATIVE RESEARCH THROUGH THE DELPHI METHOD
5.4.1 Rationale for choosing the Delphi technique
5.4.2 Sampling of Delphi participants
5.4.3 Data collection of the Delphi survey
5.5 QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH THROUGH A SPECTATOR SURVEY
5.5.1 Rationale for undertaking a spectator survey at cycling events
5.5.2 Sampling of spectators for the survey                                                                                          5.6 DEVELOPMENT OF A QUESTIONNAIRE FOR THE SPECTATOR SURVEY
5.6.1 Rationale for choosing a self-completion questionnaire
5.6.2 Designing the measurement instruments
5.7 ADMINISTERING THE RESEARCH INSTRUMENT
5.7.1 Pre-testing of the questionnaire
5.7.2 Conducting the survey at the main events
5.7.2.1 The Momentum 94.7 Cycle Challenge
5.7.2.2 The Value Logistics Fast One Cycle Race
5.7.2.3 The Herald VW Cycle Tour
5.7.2.4 The Cape Argus Pick ‘n Pay Cycle Tour and Mountain Bike Challenge
5.7.2.5 The ABSA Cape Epic
5.8 HYPOTHESES
5.9 DATA ANALYSIS
5.9.1 Qualitative data analysis
5.9.2 Quantitative data analysis
5.9.3 Data preparation and assumptions
5.9.3.1 Sample size and missing values
5.9.3.2 Outliers
5.9.3.3 Normality (univariate and multivariate)
5.9.4 Measures of central tendency and variability (descriptive)
5.9.5 Structural equation modelling (inferential)
5.9.6 Model specification
5.9.7 Model identification
5.9.8 Measurement model analysis
5.9.8.1 Dimensionality analysis (validity)
5.9.8.2 Reliability analysis
5.9.8.3 Model fit – Confirmatory Factor Analysis
5.9.8.4 Model parameters – Confirmatory Factor Analysis
5.9.8.5 Total endogenous and exogenous measurement models
5.9.9 Structural model analysis
5.9.9.1 Model modification/refinement
5.9.9.2 Model parameters and fit                                                                                                          5.9.9.3 Path analysis/correlations
5.10 CONCLUSION
CHAPTER 6: RESULTS 
6.1 INTRODUCTION
6.2 RESULTS OF THE QUALITATIVE RESEARCH COMPONENT
6.2.1 Results from the first Delphi round
6.2.2 Results from the second Delphi round
6.3 RESULTS OF THE QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH COMPONENT
6.3.1 Sample profile
6.3.2 Measurement models
6.3.2.1 Endogenous measurement model
6.3.2.1.1 Situational Intention (STI)
6.3.2.1.2 Future Intention (FTI)
6.3.2.1.3 Behavioural Attitude (ATT)
6.3.2.1.4 Perceibed Behavioural Control (PBC)
6.3.2.2 Total endogenous measurement model
6.3.2.2.1 Measurement model refinement
6.3.2.2.2 Model fit
6.3.2.2.3 Model parameters
6.3.2.2.4 Latent factor correlations
6.3.2.3 Exogenous measurement model
6.3.2.3.1 Behavioural Costs (CST)
6.3.2.3.2 Subjective Norms (SJN)
6.3.2.3.3 Environmental Management System (EMS)
6.3.2.3.4 Place Attachment (PEA)
6.3.2.3.5 Attendance Motivation (MOTV)
6.3.2.3.6 Behavioural Benefits (BNFT)
6.3.2.4 Total exogenous measurement model
6.3.2.4.1 Measurement model refinement
6.3.2.4.2 Model fit
6.3.2.4.3 Model parameters
6.3.2.4.3 Latent factor correlations
6.3.3 The structural model                                                                                                                     6.3.3.1 Proposed theoretical model
6.3.3.2 Model fit
6.3.3.3 Model parameters
6.3.3.4 Hypothesis testing
6.4 CHAPTER SYNTHESIS
6.4.1 Descriptive statistics and statistical assumptions
6.4.2 Measurement model analysis
6.4.3 Structural model analysis
CHAPTER 7: INTERPRETATION AND DISCUSSION
7.1 INTRODUCTION
7.2 EVALUATION OF THE STRUCTURAL MODEL
7.2.1 Model fit of the structural model
7.2.2 Model refinements
7.2.3 Model parameters
7.3 HYPOTHESES DISCUSSION
7.3.1 The relationship between STI and FTI
7.3.1.1 The split of STI into two factors
7.3.1.2 The relationship between STI and FTI
7.3.2 The effect of ATT on STI and FTI
7.3.3 The effect of CST on ATT
7.3.4 The effect of SJN on STI and ATT
7.3.5 The effect of PBC on STI and ATT
7.3.6 The effect of EMS on STI and PBC
7.3.7 The effect of BNFT on STI and ATT
7.3.8 The relationship between PEA, STI, FTI and ATT
7.3.9 The effect of MOTV on STI and ATT
7.3.9.1 The split of MOTV into two factors
7.3.9.2 The influence of MOTV on STI
7.3.9.3 The influence of MOTV on ATT
7.4 CHAPTER SYNTHESIS
CHAPTER 8: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
8.1 INTRODUCTION
8.2 OVERVIEW OF PREVIOUS CHAPTERS                                                                                        8.3 STUDY AIMS AND RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
8.4 KEY RESEARCH FINDINGS
8.4.1 Theoretical results
8.4.1.1 Findings from the literature
8.4.1.2 Developing the proposed theoretical model
8.4.2 Empirical results
8.4.2.1 Results from the Delphi survey
8.4.2.2 Results from the spectator survey
8.4.2.2.1 Model fit with the data and model refinement
8.4.2.2.2 Significant path coefficients
8.5 CONTRIBUTION OF THE RESEARCH
8.5.1 Theoretical contribution
8.5.2 Managerial implications of the study
8.6 LIMITATIONS
8.7 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
8.8 CONCLUSION
LIST OF REFERENCES
APPENDICES

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