The Advantages of Emerging Market Multinationals

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Data Analysis Methods

Data analysis in a qualitative enquiry involves a process of preparation and organisation, a process of data reduction through coding in order to generate categories or themes, and a process of representation through the use of figures, tables, or reports (Creswell, 2013). The analysis is an iterative process where the researcher reflects on the data throughout the research cycle (Miles & Huberman, 1994). A computer-aided software for qualitative data analysis was used to support this process.
The organisation and preparation of the data involved cleaning the transcripts and saving them into a rich-text format. A consistent protocol was followed in naming the documents and listing company name, location (headquarter or subsidiary), and date of interview. These transcripts, as well as other documents, were then added to the software and organised into document families. The ATF data were grouped into one family and those related to GALO into another. Other families were created to separate subsidiary from head office data and external from internal firm data. This preliminary process helped with data query.
The researcher transcribing, translating, and cleaning up the interviews ensured a greater familiarly with the data and assisted with the reduction process. A memo of codes was created to document reflections and the evolution of the coding scheme.
Coding framework. The dimensions employed by organisational institutionalism scholars to study the agentive behaviour of actors were used as the overarching framework for the classification of codes. As discussed in the literature review, these dimensions helped to structure the discussion with respondents during the data collection phase as well. Going through the transcripts, quotes were coded as institutional constraints, institutional responses, organisational enabling conditions, mechanisms, and outcomes. The institutional constraints reflect the impeding effects of institutions. The institutional responses capture the way the firms reacted as they faced these constraints. The enabling conditions reflect the factors explaining these responses and the outcomes capture the results of these actions. The coding process continued with the use of descriptive and attribute coding strategies (Saldana, 2013). Codes were used to indicate whether the quotation related to the head office; the subsidiary; Tunisia; Algeria; capital market; product and service market; or labour market (Saldana, 2013). Versus coding (Saldana, 2013) was used to contrast quotes and to compare Tunisia to Algeria, or subsidiary to the head office. This first cycle coding prepared the ground for a second cycle where categories and subcategories were generated (Saldana, 2013). This involved a process of back and forth between data and theory, where the coding scheme progressed through a process of augmentation and reduction.

Research Quality and Ethical Considerations

Research quality is ensured throughout the enquiry and includes reflections on the context, the design and the empirical analysis (Cuervo-Cazurra et al., 2016). This chapter discussed these dimensions to safeguard the validity and the reliability of the research findings. Besides what was discussed thus far, various steps were taken to ensure construct, internal and external validity as highlighted in Yin (2014, pp. 45-48).
Construct validity speaks to the ability to identify an operational set of measures to assist with data collection and to ensure that the phenomena under study are well captured. The concepts used in this research were defined drawing on the literature to ensure consistency in their use. Internal validity was addressed during the analysis by exploring and eliminating competing explanations. External validity was ensured through a process of context description; corroborating evidence through triangulation efforts and different collection methods; and by developing a cohesive framework grounding the used concepts in both data and theory (Eisenhardt, 1989; Creswell, 2013). Reliability, which relates to the possibility of other researchers coming to the same findings and conclusions if they were to replicate the study (Yin, 2014, p. 49), was addressed through constant documentation and standardisation. A case study protocol was written before the data collection phase; was used as part of the ethical clearance process; and guided the research enquiry thereafter. Standardisation was followed, as discussed in the previous sections. In addition, the use of a computer-aided qualitative data analysis software ensured that everything gathered was filed in the same database.
Ethical considerations included the pursuit of appropriate permissions to undertake the study, safeguarding confidentiality and anonymity, and maintaining high levels of integrity and objectivity (Saunders et al., 2014, pp. 183-200). The research proposal included a methodology section; a case study protocol; a permission letter from the participating companies to use the collected data; and a sample of an informed consent form. It was submitted to the university’s research ethics committee and ethical clearance to conduct the study was granted in March 2015. All respondents were introduced to the purpose of the research and were asked to sign a consent form. They had the possibility of withdrawing from the study at any time (Saunders et al., 2014, pp. 183-200). Steps were taken to ensure confidentially and anonymity. The study did not use the real company names and quotes remained anonymous. In addition, the research followed the permissions the participating firms provided for data collection.

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Chapter One: Introduction
-Research Problem
-Research Objectives
-Scope and Context of the Research
-Structure of the Thesis
Chapter Two. Literature Review
-Introduction
-The Advantages of Emerging Market Multinationals
-Institutions and the Multinational Enterprise
-Institutional economics
-Comparative capitalism (CC)
-Organisational institutionalism
-The Agentive Behaviour of the Multinational
-Conclusion
Chapter Three: Research Design and Methodology
-Introduction
-Research Philosophy
-Sampling Process
-Country selection
-Industry selection
-Firms selection
-Respondents selection
-Level of Analysis, Unit of Analysis and Investigated Institutional Interactions
-Data Collection Methods
-Data Analysis Methods
-Coding framework
-Constructs operationalisation and category building
-Overall analytical process
-Research Quality and Ethical Considerations
Chapter Four: ATF Case Analysis
-Introduction
-Experience in the Home Market
-Product and service market
-Labour market
-Capital market
-Findings summary
-Experience in the Host Market
-Product and service market
-Labour market
-Capital market
-Findings summary
-Case Findings
Chapter Five: GALO Case Analysis
-Introduction
-Experience in the Home Market
-Product and service market
-Labour market
-Capital market
-Findings summary
-Experience in the Host Market
-Product and service market
-Labour market
-Capital market
-Findings summary
-Case Findings
Chapter Six: The Agentive Behaviour of EMNEs’ Subsidiaries in Emerging Markets
-Introduction
-Home Market Experience and Non-Market Advantages
-Embeddedness Mechanisms
-Competitive Outcomes
-Cross-Case Analysis Findings
-Chapter Seven: Discussion of the Findings
-Home Market Experience and Non-Market Advantages
-Embeddedness Mechanisms
-Competitive Outcomes in the Host Market
-Chapter Eight: Conclusion
-Summary of Findings
-Research Limitations
-Research Contribution
References
Appendices

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