CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The theoretical and empirical review that was done in Chapter Two addressed the objectives of the present study. The objectives mentioned in the chapter are (1.4.1):
- To determine what constitutes the transformational leadership role of school principals;
- To explore how principals in SNNPRS of Ethiopian secondary schools implement transformational leadership;
- To assess how principals perceive their transformational leadership roles in SNNPRS of Ethiopian secondary schools;
- To examine teachers’ perceptions of their principals’ transformational leadership in selected SNNPRS secondary schools;
- To explore the nature of the relationship between the transformational leadership role of school principals and student achievement; and
- To make recommendations that may serve as strategy for secondary schools leadership based on the findings of the study.
This chapter describes the research methodology of the study. According to Kothari (2004:8), research methodology may be defined as a technique that indicates how a research is done systematically; and it is the general principle that guides ones research practice (Dawson, 2002:14). It includes research processes, tools and procedures or steps to be taken in accomplishing the research. Thus, this chapter presents the research methodology that comprises, based on the above conceptualization, the research approach and design, the research instruments and type of data collection techniques which the researcher has used. The chapter also describes how the data have been organized, summarized, analysed and interpreted by using appropriate statistical methods based on the type of data. This chapter also comes out with the discussion on the validity and reliability of the research and the ethical considerations involved in pursuing the same.
The research approach employed for this study is mixed methodology. The mixed methods research dates as far back as the 1950s (Creswell, 2005:14). During the latter half of the 20th century, researchers began employing the mixed methods research design as it was proved to produce more complex and supportive results. Mixed method was recognized as a third method during 1980s (Tashakkori & Teddlie, 2003: 697; Bryman, 2008:605).
Mixed methods research is identified as the combination of both qualitative and quantitative questions, methods, concepts and techniques in a single study (Johnson & Onwuegbuzle, 2004:113). They further stated that such mixed methods interpret numerical data by way of narratives to numbers which help to arrive at a conclusion and definitive findings. While utilising such methods the data can be mixed at any stage of the research process one or multiple times. This model also allows for two types of data to be gathered simultaneously or sequentially during the data collection (Creswell, 2009: 203).
Though mixed methods research has several advantages over mono methods, it has limitations too. According to Creswell (2009: 205) and Bryman (2008:624), the challenges that researchers face while employing mixed approach include enormous data collection, consumes much time for analyzing text and numeric data are some of its limitations.
The purpose of employing a mixed method approach is to create opportunities for wider and fuller perspective (Creswell, 2006:204; Frankel & Wallen, 2006:443) and to exploit the advantages that both methods have (quantitative and qualitative) by filling the gap that comes from their demerits (Trochim, 2005:120). Furthermore, the mixed method approach is superior to a single method approach because it gives strong deduction, widens opportunities to collect and integrate different data, and enables the researcher to answer research questions that other approaches cannot (Tashakkori & Teddlie, 2003a:15). In addition, the mixed method approach provides an opportunity to understand the problem deeply (Creswell, 2006: 5).
Bryman (2008:624) debates the advantage of employing mixed methods research as it is one such method that offers absolute realisation of a research problem which is not the case if a researcher applies any of either approach individually. To accrue this advantage it involves collection of both quantitative and qualitative data, integration of these two forms of data, and using distinct designs that may involve theoretical frameworks and philosophical assumptions.
When research is based on quantitative data alone, it provides the researcher with knowledge gathered through an instrument, say, questionnaire, often in the form of a numeric account of styles, attitudes, or views of a sample population (Fraenkel & Wallen, 2005: 190). With a survey, study group participants are expected to independently respond to the questions regarding their individual leadership behaviours. However, quantitative data alone would not be sufficient to provide answers to the research questions formulated in this study. Conversely, the use of qualitative data provides the researcher with narrative data based on the participants’ points of view would not be adequate to enquire in the said research objectives. Thus, a combination of both methods has been attempted in this study.
The main goal of this research is to draw from the strengths of both quantitative and qualitative approaches in answering the research questions and combining the data using mixed methods approach, to verify whether there is any convergence in the findings. Quantitative data were collected using the questionnaire, while the sources of qualitative data were open-ended questions in interviews and focus group discussion with the study participants.
Quantitative results gathered from the self-designed questionnaires rooted in Transformational School Leadership (TSL) model, developed by Leithwood et al. (1996; 2001; 2006) were then compared with the qualitative data that collected from the interviews and focus group discussions. Quantitative results from the questionnaire, along with the qualitative data from the interviews and focus group discussion had been analyzed after transcribing the field notes, finding patterns and identifying common themes. The self-reported measures (questionnaires) were developed to tap on the features of transformational style of school leadership. Data from the questionnaire were examined to determine the manifestation of TSL role based on six dimensions of TSL (Sharing school vision and building consensus, Building high performance expectation, Modelling Behaviour, Providing Individualized Support, Providing Intellectual Stimulation, Building collaborative structure and culture) goals. Information garnered from the interview and focus group discussions transcripts were also analyzed for common themes of actions, behaviours, and practices relevant to transformational leadership. The present study used the concurrent triangulation mixed research design. The rationale for using the concurrent triangulation design is presented in next section.
A research design refers to the plan or proposal to conduct research (Creswell, 2009:5); a plan for collecting research data in order to answer the research questions (Fraenkel & Wallen, 2005:599) and it is a framework for the collection and analysis of data (Bryman, 2008:31). A research design used to structure research setting, sample, data collection strategy, measures and methods of assignment in order to answer the research questions (Trochim, 2005:135).
In this research, a concurrent triangulation mixed research design was used to examine the transformational leadership role of principals in secondary schools within SNNPRS. For a research to be identified as concurrent triangulation design to determine if there is convergence, differences, or some combination the researchers has to gather both qualitative and quantitative data concurrently and then compares and integrates the two databases (Creswell, 2009:213).
Fraenkel and Wallen (2005: 443) state that concurrent triangulation design allows the researcher to collect both quantitative and qualitative data simultaneously, compares the results and then uses findings to see whether they validate each other. The two databases are compared to determine the possible convergence. Moreover, besides shorter data collection period, it has the advantage of enabling well-validated and substantiated findings (Creswell, 2011:213).
The concurrent triangulation design will allow the researcher to gain extensive perceptions by combining the results of both sets of data, and it may enhance our confidence in our research findings (Bryman, 2008: 624). The information was derived from individual responses on the questionnaire and through face-to-face interviews and focus group discussions with participants, while the secondary sources of data are gathered from Regional Education Bureau and NEFE.
According to Creswell (2009:213), using the mixed research design creates a wider perspective of knowledge and information through the use of different methods of data collection. The mixed method model of concurrent nested strategy has numerous strengths and weaknesses. Some of its strengths are: both qualitative and quantitative data can be collected simultaneously; it enables information to be gained from the different types of data or from the varying levels within the study; allows a shorter data collection time and helps to balance the weakness or strength of two
1.2 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
1.3 THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
1.4 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
1.7 ASSUMPTIONS AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
1.8 DEFINITION OF KEY CONCEPTS
1.9 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.1 THE CONCEPT OF LEADERSHIP
2.2 THE CONCEPT OF TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP
2.3 TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP IN EDUCATION
2.4 THE CONCEPT OF SCHOOL EFFECTIVENESS
2.5 THE ROLE OF TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP IN SCHOOL EFFECTIVENESS
2.6 THE PERCEPTIONS OF TEACHERS’ TOWARDS THEIR LEADER
CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 RESEARCH APPROACH
3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN
3.3 STUDY POPULATION AND SAMPLING PROCEDURE
3.4 SAMPLING TECHNIQUES AND SAMPLE SIZE DETERMINATION
3.5 INSTRUMENTATION AND DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUES
3.6 METHODS OF DATA ANALYSIS AND VALIDATION
3.7 ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS
CHAPTER FOUR DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS
4.1 DEMOGRAPHIC DATA OF RESPONDENTS
4.2 RELIABILITY OF DATA
4.3 DISCUSSION OF SURVEY, INTERVIEW AND FGD RESULTS
CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.2 SUMMARY OF IMPORTANT FINDINGS
5.3 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
5.4 PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS
5.5 FUTURE RESEARCH IMPLICATIONS
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