Chapter Two Study Region – Western Cape Province
Chapter Two provides important socio-economic background information about the study region to place the study in context. The researcher conducted the case study in the Western Cape because it attracts a large number of tourism businesses due to its popularity as a tourist destination. In South Africa, tourism contributes 14 per cent to the national gross domestic product (GDP), and the tourism industry in the Western Cape contributes 3.3 per cent of the province’s GDP.
This chapter includes a presentation of employment rate and income statistics for different racial groups in the province to provide a clear indication of the socio-economic gap that exists within the study area. The economic activities of the Western Cape Province are discussed with an emphasis on the tourism industry’s contribution to the province’s economic growth. The researcher further examines the Western Cape’s population in terms of demographic variables, such as age, level of education attained and employment status. A brief summary of information about the geographical dimension of the development of the tourism sector of the province follows.
The Geographical Features of the Western Cape Province
The Western Cape Province is situated in south-western South Africa, and its metro and gateway is Cape Town (Western Cape Government, 2002). The province consists of one metropolitan municipality and five district municipalities, as indicated in Figure 2.1. These are the City of Cape Town (the only metropolitan municipality), West Coast District, Cape Winelands District, Overberg District, Eden District and the Cape Central Karoo.
The province is further subdivided into 24 local municipalities. The West Coast District consists of Cederberg, Berg River, Saldanha Bay and Swartland. The Cape Winelands District comprises Witzenberg, Drakenstein, Stellenbosch, Breede Valley, and Langeberg. The Overberg District covers Waterkloof, Overstrand, Cape Agulhas, and Swellendam. Eden District includes Kannaland, Hessequa, Mosel Bay, George, Bitou and Knysna local municipalities. The Central Karoo incorporates Laingsburg, Prince Albert and Beaufort West. The level of tourism performance in each of the local municipalities differs; hence, the contribution of tourism businesses and BSR activities differs. Some local municipalities attract more foreign investors and visitors than others do, a phenomenon discussed later in this chapter.
The Western Cape is the fifth largest province of South Africa in terms of population, with 11 million people living in 1 173 302 households (Statistics South Africa, 2013). This contributes to the area’s significance to this case study and raises questions about the distribution of tourism BSR activities in the area because the majority of the population, 3.62 million people or approximately 63.9 per cent of the population, lives in the City of Cape Town Municipality. There are four main distinct ethnic groups: Coloured (50.2%), Black African (30.1%), White (18.4%) and Indian or Asian (1.3%) (Statistics South Africa, 2013; Western Cape Government, 2013). The researcher argues that out of these four ethnic groups in the province, the tourism industry is dominated by the minority group, White. The highest number of people (27.3%) is 15 to 27 years old and the lowest (5.2%) is 65 years of age or older. A total of 55.3% are Afrikaans’ speaking, Xhosa speakers account for 23.7%, 19.3% speak English and less than 2% speak other languages (Statistics South Africa, 2013). Disabled people account for 4.1% of the population, with sight disabilities being the most prevalent. Only 34.6% of the population has completed high school.
An assessment of tourism BSR was carried out to determine the Western Cape tourism industry’s ability to address the racial inequality, lack of education and disabilities that prevent numerous people from being economically active. The researcher found several factors, including the influence of cultural background on tourism BSR implementation and the province’s performance in attracting visitors, important to explore. Both the urban- and rural-based tourism sectors are important in fighting poverty, inequality and unemployment in South Africa.
Between the six municipalities, the City of Cape Town Municipality and Cape Winelands Municipality attract the highest number of overseas visitors. These two municipalities are therefore appropriate for this study. In 2012, the Western Cape Investment, Marketing and Trade Promotion Agency (Wesgro) reported that the City of Cape Town Municipality received the majority (77.8 per cent) of the overseas tourism visitors. The Cape Winelands followed, hosting 54.8 per cent of these visitors. The rest of the municipalities are more popular in the domestic tourism market, although the City of Cape Town still dominates (Wesgro, 2012). The Eden District, particularly the Garden Route and West Coast municipalities, is more popular among domestic tourists; fewer local tourists visit the City of Cape Town.
Overall, the Western Cape is the most developed province in the country, attracting major tourism investments that constitute the basis for provincial economic growth processes. Thus, the contribution of the province’s tourism industry to poverty reduction and other challenges the country faces were analysed. Tourism investments occur mainly where tourist activities are the most intense (Cornelissen, 2005). The Western Cape Province contributes ten per cent to the country’s economy and is one of the top ten international tourist attractions (Western Cape Government, 2006). Currently, the tourism industry in the province is growing faster than that of the other provinces with the exception of Gauteng (Cornelissen, 2005). Like other coastal regions, the Western Cape significantly benefits from its coastal location (Statistics South Africa, 2013).
The Western Cape’s popularity as a preferred area for business investment springs mainly from its geographical features. The province is characterised by beautiful mountains and coastlines that range from rocky to hilly (Statistics South Africa, 2013), and its natural beauty contributes to its popularity as a tourist destination. The province covers 129 462 square kilometres, approximately 10.6 per cent of the total area of South Africa (see Figure 2.2). The Atlantic and Indian oceans meet at Cape Agulhas, the province’s southernmost point. The Western Cape stretches from north and east of the Cape of Good Hope, extending about 400 kilometres northwards along the Atlantic coast and 500 kilometres eastwards along the Indian Ocean coast. The province is L-shaped, as indicated in Figure 2.2, and borders on the Northern Cape in the north and Eastern Cape in the east.
Chapter One Background of the Study
1.1 Introduction to the Study .
1.2 The Triple Challenges South Africa Faces Twenty Years after the fall of Apartheid
1.3 International Development Agencies and BSR in the Tourism Industry
1.4 Research Statement of the Study
1.5 Primary Aim of the Study
1.6 Research Questions of the Study
1.7 The Study’s Research Objectives
1.8 Rationale of the Study
1.9 Organisation of the Study .
Chapter Two Study Region – Western Cape Province
2.2 The Geographical Features of the Western Cape Province
2.4 Social Services in the Western Cape Province
2.5 WC Tourism Industry ‘s Regional Development and Socio-Economic Inequalities
2.6 Business Social Responsibility and Tourism Development in the Western Cape
2.7 Chapter Summary
Chapter Three Conceptual Framework of the Study
3.2 Neoliberalism and BSR in the Tourism Industry
3.3 Stakeholder Theory in Tourism BSR Implementation
3.4 Critical Realism Theory and Tourism BSR
Chapter Four Literature Review: Tourism Political Ideology
4.2 Policy Frameworks and Tourism Development
4.4 Globalisation of Tourism in Developing Countries
4.5 Interrelationship Between Tourism Development, Globalisation and Sustainability
4.6 Tourism Development as an Instrument of Socio-Economic Policy
4.7 Understanding the Nature and Development of the Tourism Industry in South Africa
4.8 SA Tourism Policy Formulation and Implementation in the Apartheid Er
4.9 SA Tourism Policy Formulation and Implementation Post-Apartheid Era
4.10 Chapter Summary
Chapter Five Literature Review: Business Social Responsibility
5.2 The Origins and Development of BSR
5.3 The Tourism Industry’s Approach to the Concept of BSR
5.4 Theories of Business Social Responsibility
5.5 Government’s Role in the Development and Management of BSR
5.6 The Development and Implementation of Tourism BSR: An African Perspective
5.8 Chapter Summary
Chapter Six Research Methodology
6.2 Research Process of the Study.
6.3 Operational Taxonomic Units Used in the Study
6.4 Research Design or Type
6.5 Primary and Secondary Sources of Data
6.6 Population and Sampling Aspects of the Study
6.7 Questionnaire Structure and Measuring Instruments
6.8 Data Analysis
Chapter Seven Presentation of the Research Findings
7.2 Local economic development
7.3 Social Equity and Pro-Poor Tourism
7.4 Community Wellbeing in the Tourism Industry
7.5 Economic Development and Tourism
7.7 Competitiveness in Tourism BSR Implementation
7.8 Local Control and Sustainability
7.9 Chapter Summary
Chapter Eight Quantitative Presentation of the Findings
8.2 Factor Analysis: Analysis of Variances for Tourism BSR Implementation
8.3 Testing the Reliability of the Constructs
8.5 The Application of Regression Analysis on Tourism BSR Assessment
Chapter Nine Analysis, Interpretation and Discussion of Research Results
9.2 Government, Tourism Businesses and Community and Sustainable Development .
9.4 Tourism BSR and the Government Institutional Framework
9.5 An Alignment of BSR to National and Provincial Socio-Economic Barriers
9.6 The Degree and Level of BSR Commitment in the Tourism Industry
9.8 Improving the Implementation of and Compliance with BSR Regulations
9.9 Proposed Model for the Implementation of Tourism BSR
9.10 Chapter Summary .
Chapter Ten Summary of the findings
10.2 Summarised Findings of the Study
Chapter Eleven Recommendations and Conclusion
11.2.1 Building and Maintaining Stakeholder Relationships
11.3 Suggestions for Future Research
List of References
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