The growth of interest in the cultural dimension of foreign language education

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Definitions of motivation :

Research on motivation can be traced back to the 30 ‘s when researchers started to analyze aspects of motivated behaviour , throughout the years many researchers have dealt with the issue of motivation and many attempted to define the concept ; however , motivation is closely related to behaviour .Hence , it is easily understood , but cannot be easily defined, this is made plain in the following statement of Martin Covington ( 1998 : 1 quoted in Tziava 2003 ) :
“ motivation ,like the concept of gravity , is easier to describe in terms of its outward, observable effects – than it is to define. of course that has not stopped people from trying it “ (p 13).
Broadly speaking , motivation is either intrinsic ( doing something for its own sake ) ,or extrinsic ( doing something for other reasons ). From the available literature , it seems that most of the researchers viewed motivation as ‘ the drive behind human behaviour’ According to Baron ( 1991:2 quoted in Tziava 2003) , it is the internal processes that guide , and maintain behaviour, it is also what Robertson and Smith ( quoted in Tziava 2003 ) assumed ,they declared :
“ Motivation is a psychological concept related to the strength of human behaviour “ ( p 13 ). yet Kenfer (1998 quoted in the same reference) argued that motivation is about the free will element of behaviour , he defines it as the psychological mechanisms governing the direction, intensity , and persistence of actions not due solely to individuals differences in ability or to overwhelming environmental demands that coerce or force action.

Some motivation theories :

As it was shown earlier different scholars and schools of psychology viewed the topic differently and come up with different conceptions , and hence various competing theories about motivation.
Since human behaviour is complex and influenced by a variety of factors, the issue was approached in various ways, attempting to give explanation to why the individual behaves and thinks the way he does ; those theories which focus on “what” motivates behaviour are called Content theories , those which focus on “how” behavior is motivated are called Process theories.
We will attempt here to review the most influential theories.

Content theories :
Hierarchy of needs theory ( Maslow):

The hierarchy of needs theory enjoys a widespread acceptance , it provides us with full insight on the nature of human beings needs , that is to grow gradually , after having satisfactory met their first rank needs ( psychological ) Maslow ’s theory consists of 5 categories of needs are on the basis and the higher on the top .

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Abstract
List of tables
List of figures
Glossary
Introduction
Statement of the problem
Hypotheses
Background and significance of the study
Objectives of the study
Theoretical part
Chapter one : Research methodology design
Introduction
I.1- Aims of the research methodology
I.2-The research method
I.3-Participants
I.3.1-The population
I.3.2-The sample
I. 4- The instruments
I .4 .1-Students ‘ questionnaire
I.4.2- Teachers ‘ questionnaire
I.4.3- Questions to experts
I .4.4- Reliability of instruments
I.4.4.1-Questionnaires
I.4.4.2-Questionnaires ‘ design
I.4.4.3- Piloting
I.5- Scope and limitations
Conclusion
Chapter two : The growth of interest in the cultural dimension of foreign language education
Introduction.
II.1-Culture and civilisation
II.1.1-Definitions of culture
II.1.2 –The term civilisation across history and its relation to the term culture
II.2-Culture in language and language in culture
II.2.1-The interrelation of language and culture
II.2.2-The cultural component of language education
II.3-Intercultural studies and foreign language education
II.3.1-The intercultural dimension in foreign language education
II.3.2-Intercultural competence
II.3.3-Intercultural awareness
Conclusion
Chapter three : Motivation to learn
Introduction
III.1-Definitions of motivation
III.2-Some motivation theories
III.3-Students motivation to learn
III.4-Foreign language teachers’ motivation in developing countries
III.4.1-Educational context in developing countries
III.4.2-Some factors of teachers’ demotivation
III.5-Impacts of teachers beliefs and practices on students motivation to learn
III.6-Teacher / learner relationship and motivation
III.7-Some motivational strategies in the foreign language classroom
Conclusion
Field work
Chapter four : Students’ questionnaire
Introduction
IV.1-Participants and procedures
IV.2-Questionnaire administering
IV.3-Questionnaire analysis and presentation
Section I :
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Section II :
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Section III :
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Section IV :
item 1
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IV.4-Discussion of the findings
Conclusion
Chapter five : Teachers’ questionnaire
Introduction
IV.1-Participants and procedures
IV.2-Questionnaire administering
IV.3-Questionnaire analysis and presentation
Section I :
item 1
item 2
item 3
item 4
item 5
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Section II :
item 1
item 2
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Section III :
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IV.4-Discussion of the findings
Conclusion
Recommendations
Conclusion
Bibliography
Appendices :
Appendix 1 : Students’ questionnaire
Appendix 2 : Teachers’ questionnaire
Appendix 3 : Experts’ questions
Appendix 4 : Experts’ answers
a)Pr Byram
b)Dr Risager
c)Dr Aboubou
Appendix 5 : Rosanthal experience
Appendix 6 : The guiding principles of the UNESCO /ILO recommndation concerning the status of teachers
Appendix 7 : The world conference on education (Dakar 2000) education for all commitements

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