THE ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF POLYGRAPHY

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Chapter 2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

INTRODUCTION

This chapter deals with the research approach and methodology used to conduct this research.The literature review undertaken will be discussed, followed by a description of the research approach adopted. The criteria used to select the sample group, the method employed to collect the primary data and the procedures followed to codify the primary research data are considered. The steps taken to conduct follow-up research on the history of polygraphy and collect additional information from specific clients are then described. Other aspects and issues discussed and dealt with in this chapter include the analysis of the collected data; research ethics considered; the integrity and quality of the research; confidentiality, anonymity and privacy issues; and obtaining of consent approval where appropriate.

RESEARCH APPROACH

2.2.1 Literature review
Firstly, a comprehensive literature review was undertaken in order to:
• orientate the researcher with the field of study, both locally and abroad;
• identify all comparable polygraph research done locally and abroad;
• identify any primary research conducted specifically on the topic in South Africa and in particular the Limpopo Province; and
• to determine if any research had been done locally or abroad specifically on the operational application and utilisation of polygraphy (Mouton 2001: 86-91).
Archive material collected by the researcher over the past 34 years, dating back to 1977, was also reviewed to extract all relevant and useful information pertaining to the topic. Local and international legislation dealing with the use of polygraphy was perused and relevant issues pertaining to this dissertation were extracted from this legislation. In this regard, the issue of statutory regulation of, and restrictions on the use of polygraphy received
special attention.
2.2.2 Research approach
A mixed methods approach was utilised to conduct the research because of the diversity of the primary sources and data concerned. Creswell (2006: 6) states that a mixed method approach involves collecting and analysing both quantitative and qualitative data to achieve the researcher’s objectives. Firstly, a quantitative approach was used in order to collect the primary data. Mistry, Minnaar, Patel and Rustin (2003: 51) state that a qualitative approach includes small samples and a detailed examination of the experiences of the participants. Thereafter a qualitative approach was used to collect additional data by using an unstructured questionnaire with open-ended questions. According to Mistry et al (2003: 51), a qualitative approach includes large samples and utilises numbers to measure variables and statistical analysis to make sense of the data. In order to collect the primary data contained in the 1 000 polygraph examinations selected for this research a quantitative approach was selected. The data was originally collected in a structured polygraph examination interview setting by the researcher, in his capacity as a polygraphist conducting polygraph examinations. The researcher did therefore not need to collect additional data from the primary sources to complete the initial research because it was already available in document form on each ‘polygraph examination interview questionnaire’ (see Annexure A) and merely needed to be collated, codified, analysed and presented in a suitable manner.A qualitative approach was also used to collect the additional primary data required from specific critical groups, namely three prominent clients (see par 5.3 and Tables 20-22 below) to complete the unstructured ‘post-examination client information questionnaire’ (see Annexure C). Mistry et al (2003: 103) describe critical case sampling as the collection of data that could highlights exceptional case and provide further insight and into a topic. The terms ‘client or clients’ used in this research refer to companies, businesses and individuals who instructed/commissioned the researcher or other polygraphists in the Limpopo Province to conduct polygraph examinations on their behalf. A similar approach was adopted to collect additional primary data pertaining to the history of polygraphy in the Limpopo Province (see Annexure D) and South Africa (see Annexure E).

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METHODOLOGY

2.3.1 Sample group
According to Mistry et al (2003: 77), a sample is a group that is chosen for further study and usually represents a portion of a larger population. The sample group (primary research material) selected for this study represented a large segment of the researcher’s business archives (target population) of over two-thousand five-hundred polygraph examinations that had been conducted by the researcher in his capacity as a polygraphist since 1998. The sample group was therefore already available in a structured and orderly written format awaiting selection and further analysis.A systematic approach was adopted to select the primary sample group for this research. The researcher believed that a sample group of 1 000 polygraph examinations, representing a period of almost four years of polygraph testing (24 April 2006 to 22 February 2010) would provide a credible and representative sample group

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION: MOTIVATION AND PROBLEM
STATEMENT
1.1 MOTIVATION FOR RESEARCH
1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
1.3 AIM OF THE RESEARCH
1.4 KEY THEORETICAL CONCEPTS
1.5 VALUE OF THE RESEARCH
1.6 CHAPTER OUTLINE
1.7 CONCLUSION
Chapter 2: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
2.1 INTRODUCTION
2.2 RESEARCH APPROACH
2.2.1 Literature review
2.2.2 Research approach
2.3 METHODOLOGY
2.3.1 Sample group
2.3.2 Selection of primary research material
2.3.3 Sampling
2.3.4 Codifying research data
2.3.5 Follow-up research and collection of additional data
2.3.6 Collection of historical data
2.3.7 Data analysis
2.4 ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS
2.4.1 Integrity and quality of research
2.4.2 Confidentiality, anonymity and privacy
2.4.3 Obtaining consent and approval
2.5 CONCLUSION
Chapter 3: BACKGROUND CONTEXTUALISATION OF POLYGRAPHY
3.1 INTRODUCTION 
3.2 OPERATIONAL ORIENTATION TO POLYGRAPHY 
3.2.1 What is polygraphy?
3.2.2 The polygraph examination
3.2.2.1 The pre-test interview
3.2.2.2 The in-test phase
3.2.2.3 The post-test interview
3.2.3 Detailed information collected during a polygraph examination
3.2.4 Types of polygraph examinations
3.3 THE ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF POLYGRAPHY
3.3.1 Early developments in polygraphy (forensic psychophysiology)
3.3.2 International polygraph associations
3.3.3 International polygraph training
3.3.3.1 The basic polygraph examiner’s course
3.3.4 Regulation of the polygraph industry in the USA and abroad
3.4 THE ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF POLYGRAPHY IN SOUTH AFRICA 
3.4.1 Polygraphy in the private sector
3.4.2 South African government institutions using polygraphy
3.4.3 Polygraph associations in South Africa.
3.4.4 Regulation of the polygraph industry in South Africa
3.4.5 Polygraphy and South African Labour Law
3.5 THE DEVELOPMENT AND UTILISATION OF POLYGRAPHY IN THE LIMPOPO PROVINCE
3.5.1 Orientation to the Limpopo Province
3.5.2 Background to polygraphy in the Limpopo Province
3.5.3 First presence
3.5.4 Second presence
3.5.5 Third presence
3.5.6 Fourth presence
3.5.7 Fifth presence
3.5.8 Sixth presence
3.5.9 Summary
3.6 CONCLUSION
Chapter 4: OPERATIONAL ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON OF POLYGRAPH EXAMINATIONS
4.1 INTRODUCTION
4.2 EXAMINATION INFORMATION DATA SUB-SETS
4.2.1 Economic sector of clients
4.2.2 Geographical location where polygraph examinations conducted
4.2.3 Racial classification of examinees
4.2.4 Gender of examinees
4.2.5 Age groups of examinees
4.2.6 Prior exposure of examinees to polygraph testing
4.2.7 Marital status of examinees
4.2.8 Children of the examinees
4.2.9 Educational and academic levels of examinees
4.2.10 Occupational status and economic activity of examinees
4.2.11 Criminal record or prior exposure to the criminal justice system
4.2.12 Language used during the polygraph examinations
4.3 GENERAL PURPOSE OF THE POLYGRAPH EXAMINATIONS
4.3.1 Specific focus of the polygraph examinations
4.4 FINANCIAL LOSS INCURRED BY THE CLIENT PER EVENT
4.5 SPECIFIC QUESTION FORMAT USED FOR THE POLYGRAPH EXAMINATIONS
4.6 RESULT OR FINDING OF THE POLYGRAPH EXAMINATIONS
4.7 CLIENT’S RESPONSE TO THE RESULTS OF THE POLYGRAPH EXAMINATIONS
4.8 FOLLOW-UP RESEARCH AND COLLECTION OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION FROM CLIENTS
4.8.1 Introduction
4.8.2 Final outcome: Disciplinary hearings
4.8.3 Final outcome: CCMA hearings
4.8.4 Final outcome: Criminal charges
4.8.5 Appearance by polygraphist (researcher) at disciplinary hearings and CCMA cases
Chapter 5: RESEARCH FINDINGS
5.1 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
5.2 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS ON THE OPERATIONAL ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON OF POLYGRAPH EXAMINATIONS
5.2.1 Introduction
5.2.2 Companies and clients using polygraphy most frequently
5.2.3 The profile of examinees that underwent polygraph examinations
5.2.4 The focus and type of polygraph examinations conducted
5.2.5 Operational challenges and obstacles encountered
5.3 IMPLICATIONS FOR CRIME PREVENTION IN THE WORKPLACE
5.4 IMPLICATIONS FOR CRIME INVESTIGATION IN THE WORKPLACE
5.5 COUNTERMEASURES TO INFLUENCE EXAMINATION OUTCOMES
5.6 DIFFICULTIES WITH SOME POLYGRAPH TESTING VENUES
5.6.1 Hot climatic conditions
5.6.2 Cold climatic conditions
5.6.3 Rural-male orientated conditions
5.7 POTENTIAL FOR EXPANSION OF THE POLYGRAPH TESTING INDUSTRY IN LIMPOPO PROVINCE
5.7.1 Local clients
5.7.2 Foreign clients in close proximity to Limpopo Province
5.8 DISPELLING UNINFORMED OPINIONS CONCERNING THE USE OF POLYGRAPHY
5.9 SUMMARY
Chapter 6: RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION
6.1 RECOMMENDATIONS
6.2 CONCLUSION

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