The ‘psycho-medical’ and the ‘interactive paradigms

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CHAPTER 2 READING

INTRODUCTION

Two headings in a recent local newspaper highlighted some significant attributes of reading which, following animated discussions, resulted in important firsthand revelations to the learners. The first heading read “Shy’Zulu’ sets new record’ (1999:11 ). The group was asked to whom ‘Zulu’ referred. The avid cricket enthusiasts immediately burst out with “Lance Klusener”. Then there were those (the not so interested in cricket) who shrugged their shoulders and said they didn’t know. The third group which emerged were not quite as sure as the cricket lovers, but having implemented some strategies (sought information from the subtitle, picture, caption and introductory paragraph), were able to provide the correct information. The second heading stated “Rhodes runs out ‘tortoise’ …. again” (1999:11). Again the cricket lovers could answer immediately contributing additional important information and the non-cricket lovers merely shrugged their shoulders. The third group scanned the article and having given it some thought, were able to answer correctly. What was the difference, after all, no one had difficulty recognising the words? The answer to this question will emerge further on. Throughout the literature, constant references are made to the fact that ancontributing factor to effective teaching is that the teacher has knowledge and understanding of the reading process. Experience has taught that there is no one best method to teach reading as learners are unique, therefore, they do not all learn from the same method. In addition, developmentally, learners’ needs change, resulting in a call for adaptations and it may just be that learners require a combination of methods to help them succeed in learning to read (Mather 1992:93). A knowledge of the process thus assists teachers to set goals, select reading methods and textual material as well as plan and prepare the reading context. It also allows for preventative teaching and the creation of opportunities to teach diagnostically. An additional critical requirement is that teachers have a clear definition of reading.In order to explain the difference between the different reactions to the newspaper headings, a brief history of reading perspectives will be traced and the definitions of reading, the reading process and the components of reading, will be explained. Firstly, a testimony to the theoretical perspectives and models over the years and their influences on the definitions of reading.

A BRIEF HISTORICAL OVERVIEW

The perceptual/cognitive perspective of the late nineteenth, early twentieth centuries, saw the emphasis falling on word recognition but Dechant (1991 :14) draws attention to the fact that the cognitive leanings of Huey (1908) and Thorndike (1917) influenced researchers to believe that there was more to reading than word recognition. Priority to word recognition continued with the behaviourists and linguists between 191 O and 1955 but with the emergence of cognitive psychology in approximately 1955, the role of cognition in the reading process was recognised through the active role of the reader. These theorists advocated that visual information, prior knowledge and experience is used by the reader to construct meaning. Thus the emphasis was no longer on word recognition, as the decoding of visual information was merely a means to an end. The psycholinguistic view of Perfetti (1985) Goodman (1973) affirmed the significance of language in the processing of printed text as well as the role of prediction and the context (Lategan 1994:25-28). The perception of language development was also  subject to several paradigm shifts. The decade of the fifties saw the emphasis on vocabulary and articulation development and sentence structure (syntax) in the sixties. The emphasis moved in the seventies to meaning (semantics), language use (pragmatics) in the eighties and in the nineties, discourse (Westby 1992: 1 ).

READ  THE CONCEPT OF FRANCHISING IN THE STUDY

CHAPTER 1INTRODUCTION, STATEMENT OF PROBLEM AND AIM OF STUDY 
1.1 INTRODUCTION
1.2  CLARIFICATION OF CONCEPTS
1.2.1 Introduction
1.2.2 Guidelines
1.2.3 Reading
1.2.4 Intermediate phase
1.2.5 Inclusion
1.2.6 Mainstreaming
1.2.7 Specialised education
1.2.8 Learners with special educational needs (LSEN)
1.2.9 Education of learners with special educational needs (ELSEN)
1.3 BACKGROUND TO THE PROBLEM
1.4  FORMULATION OF THE PROBLEM
1.5  THE AIM OF THIS STUDY
1.5.1 Aim
1.6  RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
1.6.1 Literature study
1.6.2 Action research
1.7 DELIMITATION OF THE RESEARCH FIELD
1.7.1 The situation
1.7.2 Demarcation of the population
1.8 ORGANISATION OF THE STUDY
CHAPTER 2 READING
2.1 INTRODUCTION
2.2 A BRIEF HISTORICAL OVERVIEW
2.3 DEFINITIONS OF READING 
2.4 THE READING PROCESS 
2.4.1 The information processing model
2.4.1.1 The structural component
2.4.1.1 (a) The sensory/iconic store
2.4.1.1 (b) Short term store/primary memory/working memory (STM)
2.4.1.1 (c) Long term store/long term memory (L TM)
2.4.1.2 The control or strategy component
2.4.1.3 The executive component
2.4.2 Processing models
2.4.2.1 Bottom-up processing model
2.4.2.2 Top-down processing model
2.4.2.3 Interactive processing model
2.4.2.3 (a) Graphic input
2.4.2.3 (b) Visual reception
2.4.2.3 (c) Visual processing
2.4.2.3 (d) Graphic processing
2.4.2.3 (e) Phonemic processing
2.4.2.3 (f) Meaning transmission
2.4.2.3 (g) Higher-order cognition
2.4.2.3 (h) Meaning expectancy
2.5 THE COMPONENTS OF READING 
2.5.1 Word recognition
2.5.1.1 Sight words
2.5.1.2 Decoding
2.5.1.2 (a) Units
2.5.1.2 (b) Knowledge base
2.5.1.2 (c) Processing
2.5.1.2 (d) Strategic knowledge
2.5.2 Comprehension
2.5.2.1 Comprehension elements
2.5.2.1 (a) Units
2.5.2.1 (b) Knowledge base
2.5.2.1 (c) Processing
2.5.2.1 (d) Strategic knowledge
2.5.3 The reader
2.5.3.1 Knowledge of the reader
2.5.3.2 Attitudes and motivation
2.5.3.3 Reading deficits
2.5.3.3 (a) Knowledge base
2.5.3.3 (b) Processing
2.5.3.3 (c) Strategies
2.5.3.3 (d) Word recognition
2.5.3.3 (e) Comprehension
2.5.4 The text
2.5.4.1 Types of text
2.5.4.2 Instructional materials and tasks
2.5.5 The context
2.5.5.1 The setting
2.5.5.2 The instructional context
2.6 READING DISABILITY 
2.7 OBJECTIVES OF READING 
2.8 CONCLUSION
CHAPTER 3 INCLUSION READING WITHIN INCLUSIVE CONTEXTS
3.1 INTRODUCTION 
3.2 BASIC PARADIGMS 
3.2.1 The ‘psycho-medical’ and the ‘interactive paradigms
3.3 INTEGRATION 
3.4 MAINSTREAMING 
3.5 INCLUSION
3.5.1 Australia
3.5.1.1 Policy
3.5.1.2 Reading
3.5.2 New Zealand
3.5.2.1 Policy
3.5.2.2 Reading
3.5.3 United States of America
3.5.3.1 Policy
3.5.3.2 Reading
3.6 THE READER, THE TEXT AND THE CONTEXT 
3.7 CONCLUSION
CHAPTER 4 TEACHING READING TO MEET INDIVIDUAL NEEDS 
4.1 INTRODUCTION 
4.2 A PROGRAMME TO MEET INDIVIDUAL NEEDS
4.2.1 Basic programme requirements
4.2.2 The basic programme
4.2.2.1 The principles of whole language
4.2.2.2 The interaction of the reader, the text and the context
4.2.2.2 (a) The reader
4.2.2.2 (b) The text
4.2.2.2 (c) The context
4.2.2.2 (c) (i) The classroom setting
4.2.2.2 (c) (ii) The curriculum
4.2.2.2 (c) (iii) The instructional context
4.2.2.2 (c) (iv) The social context
4.2.2.3 The zone of proximal development
4.3 INDIVIDUAL EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMMES 
4.4 CONCLUSION
CHAPTER 5 RESEARCH DESIGN
5.1 INTRODUCTION 
5.2 THE AIM OF THE RESEARCH
5.3 RESEARCH SETTING
5.3.1 Cycle one
5.3.2 Cycle two
5.3.3 Cycles three and four
5.4 RESEARCH TECHNIQUES
5.4.1 Interviews
5.4.2 Survey
5.4.3 Questionnaires
5.4.4 Documents and records
5.4.5 Participant observer
5.5 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
5.5.1 Qualitative research
5.5.2 Action research
5.5.3 Literature survey
5.6 RESEARCH METHOD: A CASE STUDY
5.7 ASSUMPTIONS OF THE RESEARCH
5.8 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESES
5.9 INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS OF ACTION RESEARCH 
5.10 CONCLUSION
CHAPTER 6 ACTION RESEARCH
6.1 INTRODUCTION 
6.2 CYCLE ONE: AUSTRALIA, NEW ZEALAND AND STELLENBOSCH 
6.3 CYCLE TWO: MAINSTREAM PRIVATE SCHOOL  DIFFERENT CONTEXTS 
6.4 CYCLE THREE: GRADE SIX, MAINSTREAM STATE SCHOOL(CASESTUDY) RESEARCHER 
6.5 CYCLE FOUR: GRADE SIX, MAINSTREAM STATE SCHOOL (CASE STUDY) TEACHER
6.6 PROGRAMME FROM THE PERSPECTIVES OFTHETEACHERANDTHELEARNERS
6.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
6.8 CONCLUSION
CHAPTER 7 GUIDELINES FOR THE TEACHING OF READING IN THE INTERMEDIATE PHASE WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF
INCLUSION
7.1  INTRODUCTION
7.2 THE TEACHING OF READING
7.3 GUIDELINES FOR THE TEACHING OF READING WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF INCLUSION
7.4 CONCLUSION 
CHAPTER 8 SYNOPSIS, FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
8.1 SYNOPSIS
8.2 THE MOST IMPORTANT FINDINGS OF THIS STUDY
8.3 RECOMMENDATIONS 
8.4  CONCLUSION

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