THE REMAKING OF SADC POLITICO-SECURITY REGIONALISM IN THE POST-COLD WAR ERA

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CHAPTER 2 CONCEPTUALISING POLITICO-SECURITY REGIONALISM

Introduction

The term politico-security regionalism is composed of two different concepts: ‘political security’ and ‘regionalism’. That is, politico-security regionalism is concerned with political security in its regional context. By politico- or political security, on the one hand, is meant the ‘security politics’ of conflict and cooperation as social reality, which is defined and redefined by states as main actors. By regionalism, on the other hand, is meant a bundle of political ideas, norms and interests, which are socially (re)constructed by regional states. In this context, it is important to note that ‘regional
states’, which denote the member states of regional grouping, should be distinguished from both global states and nation-states. In terms of the agents of regionalism, in fact, both terms ‘global states’ and ‘nation-states’ are not sufficient to explain the concept of politico-security regionalism.From a globalist perspective of Wallerstein’s world-system theory, states are normally seen as a substructure of international system to maintain a capitalist world system that contains a core, a periphery, and a semi-periphery (Viotti and Kauppi 1999:341-360).From a neo-realist perspective of Waltz’s structural realism, states (which can be regarded as a major component of anarchical international structure) are powerless to change the structure in which they find themselves (Viotti and Kauppi 1999:66-76). Both perspectives are deterministic in character in which individual policymakers can do little to affect events despite a differing degree. In exploring the concept of politicosecurity regionalism driven by regional states as main actors in this study, however, the term ‘regional states’ is often used from a perspective of social constructivism so that it can be seen as constitutive elements in which intersubjective factors such as norms identities and interests are not treated as fixed, but as being flexible, to be made and remade (cf Söderbaum 1998:75-92). Given the aforementioned assumptions, thus, the concept of politico-security regionalism can beunderstood in the open-ended context of political projects to be constructed by ‘regional states’ in response to external, as well as internal forces. In fact, both concepts of security and regionalism seem to encompass widely diverging definitions. In terms of security, as Buzan (1991:7) points out in People, States & Fear,the concept has an ‘essentially contested nature’. A number of scholars contest the definition of the term because at its core, there are moral, ideological, and normative elements that render empirical data irrelevant and prevent reasonable people from agreeing with one another on a fixed definition (Lipschutz, 1995:7). Despite the lack of an agreed definition, Buzan et al. (1998) suggest a typology for analysing security comprised of five major sectors: military, political, economic, societal and environmental. The authors attempted to broaden the definition of security to include freedom from military, political, societal, economic and environmental threats. Yet, given that all security threats are constituted politically (Ayoob, 1995:8-12; Buzan et al., 1998:141-162), it becomes possible to see the concept of security in the political context.

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Research Problem and Aim 
1.3 Theoretical Orientations
1.4 Demarcation of the Study
1.5 Research Methods
1.6 Limitations
1.7 Levels of Analysis 
1.8 Structure of the Study and Outline
CHAPTER 2 CONCEPTUALISING POLITICO-SECURITY REGIONALISM
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Defining Security: Politico-Security
2.2.1 Weak States, States-Making and Politico-Security
2.2.2 Sovereignty and Politico-Security
2.2.3 The State: Primary Referent/Agent of Politico-Security
2.3 Defining Regionalism: Politico-Security Regionalism 
2.3.1 The Domestic Level
2.3.2 The Regional Level
2.3.3 The Extra-Regional Level
2.4 Conclusion
CHAPTER 3 THEORISING POLITICO-SECURITY REGIONALISM
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Neo-realism 
3.3 Neo-liberal institutionalism
3.4 Constructivism
3.4.1 Institutions
3.4.2 Norms
3.4.3 Collective Identity
3.5 Conclusion
CHAPTER 4 POLITICO-SECURITY REGIONALISM IN SOUTHEAST ASIA: THE EMERGENCE OF THE ‘ASEAN WAY’ IN THE COLD-WAR ERA
4.1 Introduction
4.2 The Origin of ASEAN 
4.3 The Evolution of ASEAN
4.4 ASEAN’s Collective Identity: norms and principles
4.5 ASEAN’s Security Diplomacy: the Cambodian conflict (1978-1989)
4.6 Conclusion
CHAPTER 5 POLITICO-SECURITY REGIONALISM IN SOUTHERN AFRICA: SADCC AS A RESPONSE TO APARTHEID SOUTH AFRICA IN THE COLD WAR
ERA
5.1 Introduction
5.2 The Origin of SADCC 
5.3 The Evolution of SADCC 
5.4 Politico-Economic Security Strategy
5.5 Politico-Military Security Cooperation 
5.6 Conclusion
CHAPTER 6 POLITICO-SECURITY REGIONALISM IN SOUTHEAST ASIA: CONTINUITY AND CHALLENGE TO THE ‘ASEAN WAY’ IN THE POST-COLD WAR ERA 
6.1 Introduction
6.2 The Emergence of the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF): The impact of the ‘ASEAN Way’ on the ARF 
6.3 Conflict Management in the ASEAN Region
6.4 Continuity and Challenge to the ‘ASEAN Way’
6.5 Conclusion
CHAPTER 7 THE REMAKING OF SADC POLITICO-SECURITY REGIONALISM IN THE POST-COLD WAR ERA
7.1 Introduction
7.2 The SADC Organ (OPDS): The emergence of a formal regional security structure 
7.3 Conflict Management in the DRC Crisis (1998-2004)
7.4 Restructuring SADC’s Security Architecture
7.5 Conclusion
CHAPTER 8 A COMPARISON OF THE TWO CASE STUDIES.
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Comparative Findings
8.3 Theoretical Findings
8.4 Conclusion 
CHAPTER 9 CONCLUSION
BIBLIOGRAPHY 

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