The role of the school management team as leaders

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CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW

Leadership is one of the best qualities every organisation needs to realise its vision and the mission. It is against this background that the researcher is conducting a scholarly literature study to try and find the findings other authors got in the different researches they conducted and how they understand the concept of leadership. Different leadership styles are discussed and analysed to ascertain their effectiveness in the delivery of educational outcomes in schools.

LEADERSHIP

Tailor (2008) defines leadership as setting a direction and getting others to head in that direction.Bass (2008) argues that successful leaders need to understand people and organisations, tasks, processes, self and others. Kocolowski (2010) advances that leadership affects the success and failure of every type of organisation, and the complexity of today’s business environment makes leadership increasingly more challenging. In his overview of the leadership construct, Veldsman (2012) uses the words of Nahavandi (2009) when he describes leadership as the ability to influence individuals and groups, elicit goal-orientated behaviour, and relate the visions and strategies of the organisation in an understandable manner. Veldsman (2012) further brings forth the categories of leadership as stated by Nahavandi (2009) that there are three categories according to eras. These are; the art era (1800s-1940s) that perceived leaders to be born as opposed to moulded and created through experience; the behaviouristic era (Mid 1940s-1970s), which focused on the behaviours that define a leader; and the contingency era (the 1960s to present), which states that the effectiveness, behaviour, and style of the leader depend on what the situation demands of the leader. Prinsloo (2013) introduces three leadership styles used in schools. These are democratic leadership style, autocratic leadership style and laissez-faire. Prinsloo (ibid) further posts that the leadership style that is adopted by a leader can have a positive or adverse effect on, for example, effective aim achievement, performance, staff development and job satisfaction in an organisation such as a school. Burke (2014) defines a leadership style as the manner and approach the project leader uses to direct, influence, inspire and motivate the team members and other participants to achieve the project objectives. According to Prinsloo (2013), it is right for principals and all leaders of stakeholders to use some aspects of autocratic leadership style where necessary.Democratic leaders consult when approaching an issue and consider suggestions, yet the leader retains the final say. Democratic leadership style is used in schools to enhance leadership practices (Prinsloo, 2013). Laissez fair is the idea that participants should be able to work problems out without too much extra guidance and finally, an autocrat solves an issue and makes decisions for the group using observations of what the team needs at that particular time. According to Prinsloo (ibid) laissez fair is the idea that participants should be able to work problems out without too much extra guidance. All schools are led according to the above leadership styles, yet most of them are getting more and more dysfunctional. In the researcher’s view, there should be an alternative leadership approach which can either support the leadership styles or replace them. There is a need for a paradigm shift in the manner in which schools are led. Education is a societal issue; therefore shared leadership is required in schools. Hierarchal structured leadership seems to have lost its value. Principals alone cannot be masters of all subjects, individual decision makers, custodians of school policies and the overall doer of everything in schools. Leadership responsibilities need to be distributed among stakeholders who will, at the end of the day, account on whatever happens. Ogawa and Bossert (2011) assert that leadership flows through the networks of roles that comprise organisations. The medium of leadership and the currency of leadership lie in the personal resources of people. Leadership shapes the systems that produce patterns of interaction and the meaning that other participants attach to organisational events. It is important for principals to use all leadership styles where necessary (Prinsloo 2013). Wood (2005) proposes four leadership dimensions which are; joint completion of tasks, mutual skills development, decentralised interaction among personnel and emotional support.

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Title 
Acknowledgements 
Declaration 
Abstract 
List of Tables 
Table of contents
CHAPTER 1 
1.1 INTRODUCTION
1.2. LITERATURE REVIEW 
1.2.1. Overview of the concept leadership (in schools)
1.3. BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE
1.4. PROBLEM STATEMENT 
1.5. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.5.1. The main research question
1.5.2. The sub-questions
1.6. MAIN AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 
1.6.1. Main aim
1.6.2. Objectives of the study
1.7. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 
1.8. LITERATURE REVIEW 
1.8.1. Leadership
1.8.2. The role of the principal as a leader
1.8.3. The role of the school management team as leaders
1.8.4. The role of teachers as leaders
1.8.5. The role of School Governing Bodies (SGB) as leaders
1.8.6. The role of Representative Council of Learners (RCL) as leaders in secondary Schools
1.8.7. Theoretical framework
1.8.8. Necessary character traits for leaders who believe in shared leadership
1.8.9. Strategies to guide effective shared leadership
1.9. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
1.9.1. Qualitative Case study Approach
1.9.2. Population and Sampling
1.9.3. Research setting/Research site
1.9.4. Entry and researcher’s role
1.9.5. Data collection tools
1.9.5.1. Interviews
1.9.5.2. Focus groups
1.9.5.3. Observations
1.9.5.4. Field notes
1.9.6. Data analysis
1.9.6.1. Triangulation
1.9.6.2. Reliability and validity of the study
1.10. PILOT STUDY 
1.11. ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS WITH REGARD TO THE RESEARCH 
1.11.1. Protection from harm
1.11.2. Maintenance of privacy
1.11.3. Coercion
1.11.4. Informed consent
1.11.5. Informed consent with children
1.11.6. Confidentiality
1.11.7. Debriefing
1.11.8. Permission to conduct a research
1.12. CONCLUSIONS 
1.13. LIMITATION AND DELIMITATION OF RESEARCH 
1.14. EXPOSITION OF STUDY CHAPTER OUTLINE 
1.15. DEFINITION AND CLARIFICATION OF CONCEPTS
CHAPTER TWO
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1. LEADERSHIP 
2.2. THE ROLE OF THE PRINCIPAL AS A LEADER 
2.3. THE ROLE OF THE SCHOOL MANAGEMENT TEAM AS LEADERS 
2.4. THE ROLE OF TEACHERS AS LEADERS
2.5. THE ROLE OF SCHOOL GOVERNING BODIES (SGB) AS LEADERS
2.6. THE ROLE OF REPRESENTATIVE COUNCIL OF LEARNERS (RCL) AS LEADERS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS 
2.7. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
2.7.1. Shared leadership
2.7.2. Necessary character traits for leaders who believe in shared leadership
2.7.3. Strategies to guide effective shared leadership
CHAPTER THREE
3. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 
3.1. QUALITATIVE CASE STUDY APPROACH 
3.2. POPULATION AND SAMPLING 
3.3. RESEARCH SETTING/RESEARCH SITE 
3.4. ENTRY AND RESEARCHER’S ROLE 
3.5. DATA COLLECTION TOOLS 
3.5.1. Interviews
3.5.2. Focus groups
3.5.3. Observations
3.5.4. Field notes
3.5.5. Tape recorder
3.6. DATA ANALYSIS
3.6.1. Triangulation
3.6.2. Reliability and validity of the study
3.7. PILOT STUDY
3.8. ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS WITH REGARD TO THE RESEARCH 
3.9. PROTECTION FROM HARM 
3.10. MAINTENANCE OF PRIVACY 
3.11. COERCION
3.12. INFORMED CONSENT 
3.13. INFORMED CONSENT WITH CHILDREN 
3.14. CONFIDENTIALITY 
3.15. DEBRIEFING 
3.16. PERMISSION TO CONDUCT A RESEARCH 
3.17. CONCLUSIONS
3.18. LIMITATION AND DELIMITATION OF RESEARCH
CHAPTER FOUR
4. ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA 
4.1. INTRODUCTION 
4.2. CONTEXTUALISING THE INTERACTIONS 
4.2.1. Description of sites
4.2.2. Description of each participant and focus group
4.3. BACKGROUND OF DOCUMENTS ANALYSED 
4.3.1. Minutes of meetings
4.3.1. Attendance registers
4.3.1. Information books
4.4. DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 
4.4.1. Introduction of themes
4.4.1.1. Leadership styles.
4.4.1.2. How leaders of secondary schools stakeholders discharge their leadership roles.
4.4.1.3. Best secondary school leadership practices
4.4.1.4. Challenges faced by principals when discharging their leadership roles
4.4.1.5. Challenges faced by other leaders of secondary schools stakeholders when discharging their leadership roles
4.4.1.6. Leadership improvement strategies
4.5. CONCLUSION
CHAPTER FIVE
5. SUMMARY, FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS
5.1. INTRODUCTION 
5.2. SUMMARY 
5.3. FINDINGS 
5.3.1. Leadership styles
5.3.2. Decision-making
5.3.3. Discharging of leadership by leaders of stakeholders
5.3.4. Challenges stakeholders face due to the leadership styles of stakeholders
5.3.5. Best leadership practices in secondary schools
5.3.6. Meetings
5.4. RECOMMENDATIONS 
5.4.1. Recommendation 1
5.4.2. Recommendation 2
5.4.3. Recommendation 3
5.4.4. Recommendation 4
5.4.5. Recommendation 5
5.4.2. Recommendation 6
5.5. CONCLUSION 

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