The sacrificial language of the Institution words

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CHAPTER3 EUCHARISTIC SACRIFICE AFTER TRENT TO THE PRESENT

Introduction

Trent’s definition of the Eucharistic sacrifice did not bring the issue to a close. Reflection on the subject has continued ever since, both by theologians and the Magisterium of the Church. Though Trent had made definitive statements on Eucharistic sacrifice, the finer details of its definitions were left out, and as we have noted, sometimes deliberately because of the complexity of the issue. The subject of the Eucharistic sacrifice, then, and Trent’s teaching on it have remained open to further pondering, elucidation and debate among theologians and the Magisterium of the periods subsequent to Trent. Some of the issues that have occupied the attention of this period with regard to the Eucharistic sacrifice include the following:
a) The sacrificial nature of the Eucharist, in other words, how does it fit the structure of sacrifice? What is immolated and what is offered?
b) The Eucharist as propitiatory and its relation to the sacrament of reconciliation.
c) The place and role of the Church in offering, in other words, is the ,Eucharist a sacrifice of Christ or of the Church or both, and if any, how?
d) Other dimensions of Eucharistic sacrifice not considered by Trent, e.g. the Eucharist as a sacrifice of praise and thanksgiving and the Eucharist as self-offering.
The period under discussion can be conveniently subdivided into three periods, namely; the period following immediately after Trent, which we shall call the Post-Tridentine period, the Modern period which covers the late nineteenth, and the early part of the twentieth century and the Contemporary period which extends to our own time.

Eucharistic Sacrifice in the Post-Tridentine period

The post-Tridentine period ranges from the period after Trent to the 18th century. Catholic theologians at this time had not shed the polemic mood of the Reformation and most of their theological exposition was in defence of Trent. This was true for Eucharistic sacrifice as well. Their treatment of this subject still centred round the medieval controversies, the relationship of the Eucharistic sacrifice to the cross and its propitiatory character being top on the agenda. In line with Trent’s teaching, they sought to establish convincing arguments for the sacrificial character of the Eucharist.
One will remember that Trent had stated that the Eucharist is not a mere representation of the Calvary sacrifice, but also a true and proper sacrifice in its own right. The concern of the post-Tridentine theologians· was to clarify the distinct status of the Eucharist as a sacrifice, even though still dependent on the sacrifice of the cross. To do this, they identified some actions in the ritual of the Eucharist that could be regarded as constituting it a sacrifice. The explanations given started off with a theory of sacrifice, and proceeded to I . demonstrate how the Eucharist fits the proposed theory. Common among the theories of sacrifice provided at this time, was the idea that sacrifice consisted in the killing of,destruction of, or something else happening to the victim. This was greatly due to St. Thomas Aquinas’ teaching ‘that in a sacrifice “something is done to that which is offered”‘ (Stone 1909:373). Applying this principle to the Eucharist, the Eucharist was considered a sacrifice because something symbolising destruction was done or happened to the body and blood of Christ brought about through the consecration. One school of thought represented by Melchior Cano (-1520-1560) applied this principle ‘ in a literal sense to the Eucharist. He explained that the breaking of the host, after consecration, signifies the breaking of Christ’s body on the cross. This led him to a conclusion that if the breaking of the host were to be omitted, it would not be a sacrifice (cf. Stone 1909:357). Another school of thought, identified with the scholastic Jesuits,saw this destruction as symbolised by the separate consecration of bread and wine. ‘More specifically, it is the separate consecration of bread and wine- symbolically, of flesh and blood – which signifies the death of the Lord and hence must be the ritual occasion for the making, in sacrament, of his sacrifice’ (Nichols 1991:93-94). Another school of thought represented by Cardinal John de Luogo saw the sacrificial moment as consisting in the changing of the Eucharistic elements. This school saw transubstantiation, through which it is believed that the glorified Christ becomes present on the altar, as selfemptying on the part of Christ, and therefore symbolising a form of death on the part of Christ. The theoretical presupposition of sacrifice from which post-Tridentine theologians operated, namely that the essence of sacrifice consists in the killing or destruction of the victim, has been severely criticised. Some authors have argued that not only does this understanding of sacrifice deviate from the biblical understanding of sacrifice, but it also does not represent a general understanding of sacrifice. Lash (1968:49) claims that ‘there are plenty of forms of primitive sacrifice that involve no destruction of the materials used’. There certainly is unanimity among authors, both Protestant and Catholic, on the subject, that in the Old Testament, the killing of the victim is not an essential part of the sacrifice but the means of releasing and offering its life.

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EUCHARISTIC SACRIFICE IN CATHOLIC TRADITION
CHAPTERl THE IDEA OF EUCHARISTIC SACRIFICE FROM THE OLD TESTAMENT TO THE EARLY CHURCH
1.1 Introduction 
1.2 Sacrifice in the Old Testament 
1.2. l The nature of sacrifice in the Old Testament
1.2.2 The Purpose of sacrifice in the Old Testament
1.2.3 The agents of sacrifice in the Old Testament
1.2.4 The conditions for the acceptance of sacrifice
1.3 Sacrifice in the New Testament 
1.3 .1 The sacrificial character of the Passover as grounds for the sacrificial character of the Last Supper
1.3 .2 The sacrificial language of the Institution words
1.3.3 The nature of the sacrifice of the Last Supper
1.3.4 The agent of the Last Supper sacrifice
1.3.5 The condition for the acceptance of the Eucharistic sacrifice in the New Testament
1.3.6 Observations on Eucharistic sacrifice in the New Testament
1.4 The Patristic understanding of the Eucharistic sacrifice 
1.4.1 Justin
1.4.2 St. Irenaeus
1.4.3 St. Hippolytus
1.4.4 St. Cyprian
1.4.5 Cyril of Jerusalem
1.4.6 St. John Chrysostom
1.4.7 St. Augustine
1.4.8 Observations on Eucharistic sacrifice in the Fathers
1.5 Conclusion 
CHAPTER2 EUCHARISTIC SACRIFICE IN THE MIDDLE AGES
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Medieval Eucharistic theology 
2.3 Factors contributing to abuses of Eucharistic sacrifice
2.4 The pre-Reformation theology of Eucharistic sacrifice
2.5 Eucharistic sacrifice during the Reformation
2.5. l The reformers
2.5.2 The Council of Trent
2.5 .2. l Observations on Trent’s teaching on Eucharistic sacrifice
2.6 Conclusion
CHAPTER3 EUCHARISTIC SACRIFICE AFTER TRENT TO THE PRESENT
3.1 Introduction 
3. 2 Eucharistic Sacrifice in the Post-Tridentine period 
3.3 Eucharistic sacrifice in the modern Period 
3.4 Eucharistic sacrifice in the contemporary period 
3.4.1 Eucharist as sacrifice of Christ and the Church
3.4.2 The ‘fruits’ of Eucharistic sacrifice
3.4.3 Eucharistic sacrifice and liberation
3.5 Conclusion and observations
CHAPTER4 EUCHARISTIC SACRIFICE IN THE RECENT MAGISTERIAL TEACHING AND IN THE EUCHARISTIC LITURGY.
4.1 Introduction
4. 2 Recent Magisterial teaching on Eucharistic sacrifice 
4.2.1 Pius XII (Mediator Dez)
4.2.2 Paul VI
4.2.3 Vatican II
4.2.4 John Paul II
4.2.5 Catechism of the Catholic Church
4.3 The theme of sacrifice in the current Eucharistic liturgy 
4.3.1 Preparation of the gifts
4.3.2 Eucharistic prayer
4.3.3 Communion Rite
4.3.4 Observations on the structure of Eucharistic sacrifice
4.4 Conclusion and observations 
PART2 SACRIFICE IN XHOSA TRADITION
CHAPTERS THE XHOSA PEOPLE
5.1 Introduction 
5 .2 .1 Distinguishing the Xhosa people
5.2.2 A brief history of the Xhosa
5.2.3 The present composition of the Xhosa
5.3 The kinship and lineage system
5 .3. I Kinship principles relevant for sacrifice 
5.4 The Xhosa cosmology 
5.4.1 The Supreme Being ·
5.4.2 The Ancestors
5.4.2.1 Categories of ancestors
5.4.2.2 Manifestation of ancestors
5.4.3 mysterious beings
5.4.4 The diviners
5.5 Conclusion and observations
CHAPTER6 SACRIFICE AMONG THE XHOSA IN THEIR TRADITIONAL SETTING
6.1. Introduction
6.2 The fact of sacrifice in the Xhosa language 
6.3 Sacrifice and ritual
6.4 Categorisation and classification of sacrifice 
6.4.1 Birth sacrifices
6.4.1.l Ukufuthwa (To be steamed)
6.4.1.2 Imbeleko or umbingelelo (A thing with which to carry on the back or sacrifice)
6.4.1.3 Ingqithi (amputation of the first phalanx ofone finger of the left hand)
6.4.2 Initiation sacrifices
6.4.2.1 Ukwaluka
6.4.2.2 Intonjane or ukuthomba
6.4.2.3 Marriage
6.4.3 Contingent sacrifices
6.4.3.1 Propitiatory sacrifice
6.4.3.2 Diviner initiation sacrifice
6.4.3.3 Supplication sacrifices
6.4.3.4 Communion sacrifices
6.4.3.5 Thanksgiving sacrifices
6.4.3.6 Ostracism sacrifice
6.4.4 Death sacrifices
6.4.5 Important or solemn sacrifices
6.5 Elements of Xhosa sacrifice
6 .5. l Material elements
6.5.2 Ritual elements
6.5.2.1 Dancing
6.5.2.2 Use ofUbulawu (Home medicine)
6.5.2.3. Explanation of the purpose of sacrifice and Ukunqula (invocations)
6.52.4 The prodding with the sacrificial spear
6.5.2.5 Cutting of the suet (Intlukuhla)
6.5.2.6 Ritual tasting of the sacrificial meat (Intsonyama) and beer
6.5.2.7 The burning of the bones
6.6 The nature of Xhosa sacrifice 
6.7 Conclusion and observations 
CHAPTER 7 SACRIFICE AMONG THE XHOSA IN THE MODERN SETTING
7.1 Introduction 
7 .2 Recent incidents of sacrifice 
7.3 Modern Xhosa Sacrifice in the literature 
7 .4. Observations on reports and research on modern Xhosa sacrifice 
7.5 Factors determining the modern practice and understanding of sacrifice 
7.6 Analysis of the modern Xhosa understanding and practice of sacrifice. 
7.7 Conclusion and observations 
PART3 COMPARISON OF THE TWO TRADITIONS OF SACRIFICE FOR AN INCULTURATED UNDERSTANDING OF THE EUCHARIST
CHAPTERS COMPARISON OF EUCHARISTIC SACRIFICE WITH XHOSA SACRIFICE
8.1 Introduction 
8.2 Last Supper and Xhosa sacrifice 
8.3 Patristic Eucharistic sacrifice and Xhosa sacrifice 
8.4 Comparison between Medieval Eucharistic sacrifice and Xhosa sacrifice
8.5 Comparison between Eucharistic sacrifice after Trent with Xhosa sacrifice
CHAPTER9 TOW ARDS AN INCUL TURA TED UNDERSTANDING OF THE EUCHARIST
9.1 Introduction 
9.2 The concept of inculturation 
9.3 Points of consideration for an inculturated understanding of the Eucharist 
9.4 Food elements for inculturated Eucharistic sacrifice
9.5 Consideration for less frequent celebration of Eucharistic sacrifice 
9.6 Other considerations for an inculturated understanding of Eucharistic sacrifice.
9.7 Conclusion and observations 
CHAPTERlO 10  GENERAL CONCLUSION
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Eucharistic sacrifice in historical perspective 
10.3 Xhosa Cosmology
10.4 Elements of Xhosa Sacrifice 
10.5 Inculturated Understanding of Eucharistic Sacrifice 
10.6 Conclusion 
11. BIBLIOGRAPHY 

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