THE SELF IN DISSONANCE

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CHAPTER 2 THE CONCEPT OF THE SELF AND THE ESSENTIAL SELF

INTRODUCTION

The idea of the self is a concept that cannot be easily defined. As the idea of self, or even sense of self, can barely be defended. Yet, how a person experiences himself dramatically affects how he experiences being in touch with himself and others. When thinking about a person in terms of feelings and thoughts the question arises as indicated in Chapter 1: Who is it that is experiencing all these feelings? Further exploration of these questions leads to answers like me or my self. What can be named as self might include identity or personality, but it goes beyond that. The researcher agrees with Möller (1995:15) that theories on psychology provide the psychologist with a concept of man and that the way in which the psychologist defines personality will determine the therapeutic approach. As the researcher focuses on the essential self, this study will highlight the researcher’s views on the self and the essential self. The researcher is aware that extensive studies with regards to aspects of the self (as indicated later in this chapter) have been done and do not negate aspects such as the self in relation to others, self-concept, self-identity and so forth; but the researcher will mainly give attention to the self as energy system. In order to establish a foundation for further discussion, concepts such as ego, person and personality will be clarified in terms of their relation to the self; thereafter a discussion on the how of the functioning of the self will be given by using the Ego-state modality, an energy model of the self, as founded by Watkins (Watkins, 1993:233; Watkins & Watkins, 1997:13-14). The chapter will be concluded by the researcher’s view on what can be seen as the self, the essential self and the non-essential self.

DEFINITIONS

SELF

It can be deducted from Table 2.1. that the term self is used in different ways in the field of psychology – for example Rogers who used it to refer to people’s views of themselves, while Jung used it to refer to the core of personality and Sullivan who used it to refer to many other aspects of the personality (Meyer & Moore, 2002:12). From the abovementioned definitions it is clear that there is some agreement amongst theorists that the self can be seen as that part, that is spoken of as, me.When we describe our selves we generally attach the word, my, to specific content with boundaries, for example my hand, my thoughts and my feelings.The researcher is of the opinion that the abovementioned definitions of the self in combination, is needed to define the self. She is also of the opinion that the description / definition of Viljoen (2002a: 95) seeing the self as a harmonious whole where opposing forces of the conscious and subconscious are integrated, is giving the most clear description of her view on the phenomena of the self. It is from this foundation that the researcher constructs her further discussion of the self, as consisting of internal forces described as an internal energy system, consisting of different aspects influencing the flow of energy within the person as illustrated in Figure 2.2. The aspects influencing the flow of energy within the person is seen as ego-states which will be discussed in more detail later in this chapter. The researcher noticed in her practice that the self is the, me-ness, which clients often complain about being missing when they arrive for therapy. The researcher is of the opinion that this self has no content. To the researcher the concept of self is Internal energy Sub-selves SELF (me) seen as an energy which is characterized by the feeling of me-ness which contains a person’s essence. The researcher is in support of Watkins and Watkins (1997:23) who stated that the self is an energy system and base her discussions around the self and the essential self as well as therapy on this foundation as illustrated in Figure 2.2.

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CHAPTER 1 AWARENESS OF THE PROBLEM AND MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY
1.1 INTRODUCTION
1.2 AWARENESS OF THE PROBLEM
1.3 MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY 
1.4 A PSYCHO-EDUCATIONAL PERSPECTIVE
1.4.1 INTRODUCTION
1.4.2 SELF-IDENTITY
1.4.3 SELF-CONCEPT
1.4.4 SELF-ACTUALIZATION
1.5 A HYPNOTHERAPEUTIC PERSPECTIVE 
1.6 LITERATURE SURVEY
1.7 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
1.8 HYPOTHESIS
1.9 AIM OF THE STUDY 
1.10 DEMARCATION OF THE STUDY 
1.11 CLARIFICATION OF CONCEPTS
1.12 DIVISION OF CHAPTERS IN THE RESEARCH
CHAPTER 2 THE CONCEPT OF THE SELF AND THE ESSENTIAL SELF
2.1 INTRODUCTION
2.2 DEFINITIONS
2.2.1 SELF
2.2.2 DEFINITIONS OF EGO
2.2.3 PERSON
2.2.4 PERSONALITY
2.2.5 THE INTERRELATEDNESS OF SELF, EGO AND PERSONALITY FOR THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY
2.3 THE SELF AS ENERGY SYSTEM
2.3.1 INTRODUCTION
2.3.2 FEDERN’S TWO ENERGY THEORY
2.3.3 THE DEVELOPMENT OF EGO-STATES
2.3.3.1 INTRODUCTION
2.3.3.2 DIFFERENTIATION
2.3.3.3 INTROJECTS
2.3.3.4 TRAUMA
2.3.4 SUMMARY ON EGO-STATES
2.4 THE ESSENTIAL SELF AS HARMONIOUS ENERGY SYSTEM
2.4.1 INTRODUCTION
2.4.2 THE SELF IN DISSONANCE
2.4.2.1 INTRODUCTION
2.4.2.2 INSECURE ATTACHMENT
2.4.2.3 LACK OF SELF-AWARENESS
2.4.2.4 LACK OF MEANING AND PURPOSE
2.4.2.5 LACK OF SAFETY AND SECURITY
2.4.2.6 LACK OF CONNECTEDNESS
2.4.2.7 LACK OF SELF-EVALUATION CAPACITY
2.4.2.8 SELF-DECEPTION
2.4.2.9 DISTORTION OF PERCEPTION
2.5 CONCLUSION
CHAPTER 3 THE SUBCONSCIOUS MIND AND HYPNOSIS
3.1 INTRODUCTION
3.2 SUBCONSCIOUS AND CONSCIOUS MIND
3.2.1 INTRODUCTION
3.2.2 AWARENESS
3.2.3 THE SUBCONSCIOUS-CONSCIOUS INTERRELATION
3.2.4 CONCLUSION
3.3 HYPNOSIS
3.3.1 INTRODUCTION
3.3.2 HYPNOSIS AS THERAPEUTIC TOOL
3.3.3 CONCLUSION
CHAPTER 4 FRAMEWORK FOR ACCESSING AND THE UTILIZATION OF SUBCONSCIOUS RESOURCES
4.1 INTRODUCTION
4.2 MEDICAL HYPNOANALYSIS
4.2.1 OVERVIEW
4.2.2 MEDICAL HYPNOANALYSIS MODEL
4.2.3 THE FOUR CORNERSTONES OF MEDICAL HYPNOANALYSIS
4.2.3.1 LEARNED EMOTIONAL RESPONSE
4.2.3.2 THE ORDER OF IMPORTANCE
4.2.3.3 THE TRIPLE ALLERGENIC THEORY
4.2.3.3.1 THE INITIAL SENSITIZING EVENT (ISE)
4.2.3.3.2 THE SYMPTOM PRODUCING EVENT (SPE)
4.2.3.3.3 THE SYMPTOM INTENSIFYING EVENT (SIE)
4.2.3.4 THE SUBCONSCIOUS DIAGNOSIS
4.2.3.4.1 THE PRENATAL EXPERIENCE (PNE)
4.2.3.4.2 THE BIRTH EXPERIENCE (BE)
4.2.3.4.3 THE IDENTITY PROBLEM (IDP)
4.2.3.4.4 THE DEATH EXPECTANCY SYNDROME (DES)
4.2.3.4.5 THE BIRTH ANOXIA SYNDROME (BAS)
4.2.3.4.6 THE SEPARATION ANXIETY SYNDROME (SAS)
4.2.3.4.7 THE WALKING ZOMBIE SYNDROME (WZS)
4.2.3.4.8 THE PONCE DE LEON SYNDROME (PDL)
4.2.3.4.9 THE JURISDICTIONAL PROBLEM OF GUILT (JPG)
4.2.4 METHOD
4.3 EGO-STATE THERAPY 
4.3.1 OVERVIEW
4.3.2 THE HIDDEN OBSERVER / INNER ADVISOR
4.3.3 EGO-STRENGTHENING
4.3.4 THE SARI-MODEL
4.3.4.1 SAFETY AND STABILITY
4.3.4.2 ACCESSING TRAUMA MATERIAL
4.3.4.3 RESOLVING TRAUMATIC EXPERIENCES
4.3.4.4 INTEGRATION AND NEW IDENTITY
4.3.5 CONCLUSION
4.4 ERICKSONIAN PSYCHOTHERAPEUTIC TECHNIQUES 
4.4.1 INTRODUCTION
4.4.2 THE ERICKSONIAN DIAMOND
4.4.2.1 GOAL
4.4.2.2 GIFT-WRAPPING
4.4.2.3 TAILORING
4.4.2.4 PROCESSING
4.4.2.5 UTILIZATION
4.4.3 THE HYPNOTIC PHENOMENA
4.5 CONCLUSION
CHAPTER 5 RESEARCH DESIGN
5.1 INTRODUCTION
5.2 AIM OF THE STUDY 
5.3 RESEARCH DESIGN
5.3.1 QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
5.3.2 THE USE OF LITERATURE
5.3.3 EXPLORATIVE RESEARCH
5.3.4 DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
5.3.5 CONTEXTUAL RESEARCH
5.3.6 INDUCTIVE AND DEDUCTIVE RESEARCH
5.3.7 HEURISTIC RESEARCH
5.3.8 PARTICULARISTIC RESEARCH
5.4 RESEARCH STRATEGY 
5.4.1 MULTIPLE CASE STUDIES
5.4.2 SAMPLE STUDY
5.5 METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION
5.5.1 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
5.5.2 CASE STUDIES
5.5.2.1 THE MEDICAL HYPNOANALYSIS CASE HISTORY
5.5.2.2 THE BRYAN WORD ASSOCIATION TEST
5.5.2.3 FIELD NOTES
5.5.2.4 DEMARCATION
5.6 PROCEDURES AND TECHNIQUES
5.6.1 ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS
5.6.2 THE CLINICAL PROCEDURE OF THE THERAPY
5.6.3 PROCEDURES FOLLOWED IN CASE DISCUSSIONS
5.6.4 THE ROLE OF THE RESEARCHER
5.7 GOALS FOR THERAPY 
5.8 DATA ANALYSIS
5.9 DRAWING CONCLUSIONS
5.10 CREDIBILITY, RELIABILITY, VALIDITY OF THE RESEARCH 
5.11 CONCUSION / SUMMARY
CHAPTER 6 CASE DISCUSSIONS INDICATING THE DISCOVERY OF THE ESSENTIAL SELF BY MEANS OF SUBCONSCIOUS RESOURCES
6.1 INTRODUCTION
6.2 CASE STUDIES 
6.2.1 CASE A
6.2.1.1 HISTORICAL OVERVIEW
6.2.1.2 CASE DISCUSSION
6.2.1.3 CASE A SUMMARY
6.2.2 CASE B
6.2.2.1 HISTORICAL OVERVIEW
6.2.2.2 CASE DISCUSSION
6.2.2.3 CASE B SUMMARY
6.2.3 CASE C
6.2.3.1 HISTORICAL OVERVIEW
6.2.3.2 CASE DISCUSSION
6.2.3.3 CASE C SUMMARY
6.2.4 CASE D
6.2.4.1 HISTORICAL OVERVIEW
6.2.4.2 CASE DISCUSSION
6.2.4.3 CASE D SUMMARY
6.3 SUMMARY 
CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE STUDY
7.1 INTRODUCTION
7.2 CONCLUSIONS FROM THE LITERATURE STUDY
7.3 FINDINGS EMANATING FROM THE EMPIRICAL STUDY 
7.4 CONTRIBUTIONS MADE BY THE STUDY
7.4.1 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE THEORY OF PSYCHOLOGY
7.4.2 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THERAPEUTIC PRACTICE
7.5 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY 
7.6 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY 
7.7 IMPLICATIONS OF THE STUDY
7.8 CONCLUSION

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