The socio-economic conditions of the returnees before migration

Get Complete Project Material File(s) Now! »

CHAPTER TWO CONCEPTUALIZATION OF KEY TERMS AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORKS

Introduction

This chapter gives brief definitions of key terms used in this study. It also discusses the situation,theoretical perspectives, the similarities and differences between migrant smuggling and trafficking, review related empirical studies on factors contributing to illegal migration,reintegration and its various dimensions as well as national and international instruments on illegal migration.

Conceptualization of key terms

Illegal migration: Is the entrance and residence of individual/s in another country without having or receiving legal authorization from the host state to do so (International Council on Human Rights Policy 2010:1). It refers to the illegal movements of people that take place outside the regulatory norms of the sending, transit and receiving countries.
Migrant smuggling: “the procurement, in order to obtain, directly or indirectly, financial or other material benefits, of the illegal entry of a person into a State Party of which a person is not a national or permanent resident” (United Nation 2000:42).
Human trafficking: The United Nations Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons3 defines human trafficking as:“the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual slavery, servitude or the removal of organs” (United Nations 2000:54). In Ethiopia, there is no clear distinction between these two terms and thus, the terms migrant smuggling and human trafficking are used interchangeably and are often confused. Both are widely prevalent in Ethiopia (IOM 2011: 8). Therefore, in the study, I use the definition used in the Ethiopian context.Few people move by smugglers ‘willingly’. However, the ‘willingness’ mainly depends on deception and false information they get from the smugglers. There are also people who are trafficked from the very beginning by force, fraud, deception and false information for the purpose of exploitation and the use of the term trafficking is also appropriate to use. For this reason, the use of term migrant smuggling or human trafficking alone cannot capture the experiences of the returnees participated in this study. Due to this, both definitions are used.
Reintegration: reintegration is defined as the process by which a returned migrant is reintroduced or reintegrated into the ‘economic, social, culture and social structure of the country of origin and becomes self-sufficient and able to earn his/her own livelihood’ IOM (2012: 24; International Journal of Refugee Law, cited in the Asian Foundation 2005:20).
Reintegration supports: Refers to the material and non-material assistances needed by the returnees to reintegrate into the community after returned to place of origin.

Global and local dimensions of illegal migration

Getting exact data on illegal migration is difficult due to the ‘criminal’ and clandestine nature of the movement. Even though it is very difficult to determine precisely the number of illegal migrants in the world due to the criminal and clandestine nature of the activity, available information shows that a number of women, children and men migrate ‘illegally’ from one country to another every year. Be the limitation as it is, it is important to look at the available figure with caution as at least it indicates the presence of the phenomena. There were at least 12.3 million adults and children in forced labour, bonded labour, and commercial sexual servitude as reported in 2009 by the International Labour Organization (ILO) cited in (US Department of State 2009:9). The International Labour Organization 2012 estimate indicated that globally 20.9 million people or three out of every 1,000 persons worldwide were trapped into forced labour by coercion, fraud or deception through trafficking. The US Department of State (2012:9) on the other hand reported that 27 million men, women and children became victims of human trafficking. Likewise, UNODC (2012) report indicated that trafficking in persons is a global crime affecting nearly all countries in every region of the world (UNODC2012:12). At least 136 different nationalities were trafficked and detected in 118 different countries between 2007 and 2010 according to the report. These show that human trafficking has become the fastest growing criminal business in the world and is ranked third among the top three most lucrative criminal activities after trafficking of narcotics and armed weapons (Petrunov 2011:166 ).Regarding its regional distribution, Asia-Pacific regions account for 11.7 million (56%), Africa 3.7 million (18%), followed by the Caribbean with 1.8 million (9%), the developed economies account for 1.5 million (7%), while countries of central, Southeast and Eastern Europe and common wealth countries account for 1.6 (8%) of the illegal migrants (ILO (2012). The European Centre for Policy Studies reported that over a million irregular migrants crossed its boarders in 2015 alone (The European Centre for Policy Studies2016: i). There is evidence that a minimum of 2.5 million migrants were smuggled in different countries in the world for economic return of US $5-7 billion in 2016 (UNODC2018:5). Like in other countries, it is difficult to know the exact number of people being trafficked annually in Ethiopia due to the dearth of information. However, the country is a source for men, women,and children illegal migrants subjected to forced labour and sex trafficking. In 2011 alone, 20,000 to 80,000 Ethiopians applied to work overseas. Of those, 60 to 70 migrated ‘illegally’ by brokers and smugglers and ended up in forced labour. There are many trafficked Ethiopian girls in domestic servitude and prostitution in countries such as Egypt, Somalia, Yemen, Djibouti, Sudan and South Sudan – particularly in Juba, Bor, and Bentiu. In the same manner, there are Ethiopian
boys subjected to forced labor in Djibouti as shop assistants, errand boys, domestic workers, thieves, and street beggars (US Department of State, 2012).Likewise, 1.5 million Irregular migrants left Ethiopia between the year 2008 and 2014. There are 60-70% (between 300,000- 350,000) of the Ethiopian migrants in the Gulf states and the Middle East who are either trafficked or smuggled with the facilitation of illegal brokers according to the US Department of State report cited in ( RMMS2014: 35). About 146, 000 migrants from Oromia,Amhara and Tigray in Ethiopia transit through Djibouti ‘illegally’ every year to attempt to go to Yemen and other Gulf countries in search of better economic opportunities. The migratory journey to the Middle East through Djibouti constitutes a threat to human life and human dignity due to unsafe means of transportation and exposure to extreme climate (IOM 2015:9). The Saudi government deported 163,000 ‘illegal Ethiopians migrants’ from its country in 2013 and the Ethiopian government decreed temporary ban of any form of migration in response to the deportation. However, contrary to the deportation, ban, the expensive and dangerous nature of the journey to the lives of the migrants, the number of irregular migrants reaching Yemen to cross to Saudi increased by the end of 2013 (Fernandez 2017: 243-244).

READ  THE RELIGIOUS-CULTURAL DISCOURSE

DECLARATION 
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 
DEDICATION
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF ABBREVATIONS AND ACRONYMS
GLOSSARY OF LOCAL TERMS
ABSTRACT
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 
1.1 Background to the study 
1.1.1The smuggling-trafficking continuum
1.1.2 The need for successful reintegration
1.2 Statement of the problem
1.3 Research questions
1.4 Research objectives
1.4.1 General objectives
1.4.2 Specific objectives
1.5 Significance of the study
1.6 Scope of the study
1.7 Limitation of the study
1.8 Outline of the chapters
CHAPTER TWO  CONCEPTUALIZATION OF KEY TERMS AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORKS
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Conceptualization of key terms
2.3 Global and local situation of illegal migration
2.4 Theoretical perspectives
2. 4.1 The ecological system perspectives
2.4.2 The Symbolic Interactionism perspective
2.5. The differences and similarities between migrant smuggling and human trafficking 
2.6 Factors contributing to illegal migration
2.6.1 Shortage of agricultural land
2.6.2 Poverty
2.6.3 Unemployment
2.6.4 Gender based discrimination and inequality
2.7 The impact of illegal migration
2.7.1 Impacts at micro level
2.7.2 Impacts at meso level
2.7.3 Impacts at macro level
2.8 Reintegration of the returnees of illegal migration
2.8.1 Dimensions of reintegration
2.9 Addressing stigma and discrimination
2.10 Returnee empowerment 
2.11 The international and national instruments on reintegration
2.11.1 The international legal instruments
2.11.2 Ethiopia’s domestic legal instruments relevant to illegal migration
2.12 Conclusion 
CHAPTER THREE  RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, DESIGN AND THE STUDY AREA DESCRIPTION
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Philosophical foundations or paradigms of the research
3.3 Research design 
3.3.1 Study population, sample size and sampling technique
3.3.2 Sources of data
3.4.3 Methods of data collection
3.3.4 Instruments of data collection
3.4.5. The interview setting
3.3.6. Data transcription and translation
3.3.7. Methods of data analysis
3.3.8 Trustworthiness of the data
3.3.9. Research ethics
3.4 My reflection on the overall research process
3.5. The socio-demographic characteristics of the study participants
3.6 Study area description
3.7 Conclusion
CHAPTER FOUR THE SOCIO-CULTURA AND ECONOMIC CONDITIONS CONTRIBUTED TO THE illegal migration
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Poverty 
4.3 Unemployment
4.4 Influence of brokers/ smugglers/traffickers
4.5 Family pressure
4.6 Socio-cultural and religious reasons
4.7 Political discrimination 
4.8 Absence of legal means to migrate to Saudi Arabia 
4.9 Conclusion 
CHAPTER FIVE  THE RETURNEES’ EXPERIENCES OF illegal migration 
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Physical abuse
5.3 Labour exploitation
5.4 Economic exploitation 
5.5 Sexual Abuse
5.5 Restricted communication and isolation from social interaction
5.6. Conclusion 
CHAPTER SIX THE REINTEGRATION NEEDS OF THE RETURNEES AND COMMUNITY RESPONSES 
6.1 Introduction
6.2 The reintegration needs of the returnees
6.2.1 Need for accommodation
6.2.2 Need for health services
6.2.3 Need for employment
6.2.4 Skills training needs
6.2.5 Need for financial support
6.2.6 Support for social reintegration
6.2.7 Need for counselling support
6.3 Returnees’ perceptions of reintegration, their experiences and coping strategies after return
6. 4 Conclusion
CHAPTER SEVEN  ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Analytical conceptual framework for reintegration of the returnees 
7.3 The socio-contextual factors contributing to illegal migration of the returnees
7.4 Returnees experiences of illegal migration
7.5 The reintegration supports sought by the returnees and the responses of relevant bodies.
7.5.1 Housing
7.5.2 Health services
7.5.3 Skills training
7.5.4 Social support
7.5.5 Counselling support
7.6 Theoretical relevance of the reintegration needs of the returnees
7.7 Conclusion 
CHAPTER EIGHT  SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
8.1 Summary of the research findings 
8.1.1 The socio-economic conditions of the returnees before migration
8.1.2 The returnees’ experience of illegal migration
8.1.3 The reintegration needs of the returnees and community response
8.2 Conclusion 
8.2.1 Theoretical contribution
8.2.2 Practical contribution of the study
8.3 Recommendations
8.3.1 Recommendation for practitioners and relevant bodies
8.3.2 Recommendations for future research
REFERENCES 
APPENDICES 

GET THE COMPLETE PROJECT

Related Posts