The use of share-based programs sorted by industrial categories

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Selection of companies

The IFRS 2 affect on the year 2004 for the companies’ listed on the Swedish A-list we believe is of great interest. The reason for focusing on these companies is that they all are large companies with a great influence on other companies in Sweden and the European Union. Therefore, by focusing on these large corporations we believe that we can present a fair picture of the concerns regarding the IFRS 2 in general among these companies. Given these restrictions our population is the 51 companies’ listed on the Swedish A-list. Considering our purpose the selection will be identical to the population, i.e. the 51 companies’.

Data collection

According to Yin (1994), data collection for case studies relies on many sources of evidence, such as interviews, observations, documentation, archival records and physical artefacts. Yin claims, that in order to benefit from the advantages of case studies, the researcher should employ multiple sources of evidence (Yin, 1994).

Primary data

Primary data is information that is collected for the first time i.e. information that not earlier has been published. It can be collected by two methods; experimental or nonexperimental research. The advantage with primary data is that it can be adapted for the purpose of the specific theme. The disadvantage is that it might be a costly method of collecting data (Halvorsen, 1992).

Secondary data

Secondary data is information collected from already published sources i.e. everything that is not primary data (Patel & Davidson, 2003). Examples of secondary data are statistics, literature, material of law and electronic sources, which all contribute to form a wider perspective (Lekvall & Wahlbin, 2001). The advantage with secondary data is that it, in most cases, is costless to collect. The disadvantage is that it can be difficult to find information that suits the purpose of the research. The information can be grouped into internal or external data. Internal data is information, which ca be collected within a company. External data can for example be books or articles that are available for the public (Halvorsen, 1992).

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To be able to achieve a high level of credibility for the conclusions presented in this thesis, it is important to demonstrate that the research was designed and conducted in such a way that it accurately identifies and describes the phenomenon that was investigated. In orderto do this, it is important to describe issues concerning the research project’s validity and  reliability (Holme & Solvang, 1997).
Validity is one element of science research, which deals with the issue of whether the research actually measures the things it aims to measure, and that nothing irrelevant affects the result. According to Lekvall and Wahlbin (2001), validity can be divided into constructive, internal and external validity.
Internal validity covers if the researcher actually measures what he/she beliefs to measure. This can be a problem when researching data from a source that is not reliable. External validity is more interesting for our thesis. Validity is said to be external if the research result in a limited area is valid in other circumstances. The benefit with conducting a research that has external validity is that the result probably is having some level of transferability and that general conclusions can be drawn from this. This generalisation helps the researcher to transfer the conclusions made to another research area. For example, when conducting a research in a geographic area, the result can often be transferred to and applicable for other geographic areas. (Jacobsen, 2002)

1 Introduction 
1.1 Background
1.2 Problem discussion
1.3 Problem statement.
1.4 Purpose
1.5 Disposition
2 Method
2.1 Research perspective
2.2 Research design
2.3 Research Method.
2.4 Selection of companies .
2.5 Data collection
2.6 Credibility.
3 Frame of Reference 
3.1 Share-based payments
3.2 Implementation of the new accounting standards
3.3 Option Theory.
3.4 The value of an option.
4 Previous studies 
5 Empirical Findings
5.1 The use of share-based programs by the companies listed on the Swedish A-list .
5.2 The use of share-based programs sorted by industrial categories.
5.3 Utilization of share-based programs
5.4 Employees in the companies’ entitled to participation in share-based programs .
5.5 The IFRS 2-affects on the operating profit.
5.6 The dilution effects .
5.7 Valuation models.
6 Analysis.
7 Concluding discussion

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Share-Based Payments Utilization of share-based payments and the affects of the IFRS 2 on the Swedish A-list companies

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