Theory and practice of the causes and effects of delays in coal mining projects

Get Complete Project Material File(s) Now! »

Chapter 2: Theory and practice of the causes and effects of delays in coal mining projects

Introduction

This chapter explores the causes and effects of delays in projects based on a comprehensive review of literature available. Through the understanding of the previous research projects done the current understanding of the subject can be analyzed. The review will start with the international perspective and funneled down to an African perspective and finally a South African perspective of research done in the subject of causes and effects of delays in project management in relevant industries. These industries will be mining, construction and information management. This chapter will outline the various aspects of delays, how delays are caused and how they affect the project.

Defining the project management process

A project is defined (Gido and Clements, 1999: 2) as:
“….an endeavor to accomplish a specific objective through a unique set of interrelated tasks and the effective utilization of resources.”The project life cycle, as shown in Annexure B, has four basic phases which are; identify the need, develop a proposed solution, perform the project and terminate the project. The effort required in each phase increases to a peak and then tapers off as the project is completed (Gido and Clement, 1999). The project life cycle phases are more formalized in project management terms by Meredith and Mantel (2006) as:
a) Conception
b) Selection
c) Planning, scheduling, monitoring and control
d) Evaluation and termination
Project management in mining is broken down into five phases; scoping studies, prefeasibility, definitive feasibility studies, design and construction and operations (Noort and Adams, 2006). The mining project phases can be linked to both the life cycle phases
by Gido and Clement (1999) as well as those by Meredith and Mantel (2006). It is feasible that mining organizations may use variations of the defined life cycle in their business.

Coal deposits in South Africa

Coal fields in South Africa are concentrated in the northern areas, which include the North Free State province, North Eastern Cape province, North Kwazulu Natal province, North Limpopo province and a major portion of the Mpumalanga province as shown in Annexure A. Most of the economically active mines are in the Mpumalanga province. According to Bian, Inyang, Daniels, Otto and Struthers (2010) 81.9% of all the coal extracted in the world occurred in USA, Russia, India, China, Australia and South Africa during 2006. In 2008 South Africa had an estimated 30 billion tonnes of proved, recoverable coal reserves, which is the tonnage that can be mined under the current economic conditions and technology (World energy council, 2010). From a study done by Jeffrey (2005) it is clear that the remaining reserves are of a poorer quality and will require a change in exploitation technology to benefit from this coal through use and sales. As the base for coal mining projects the mineral to be exploited needs to be examined. The South African Mining Mineral Resource Committee (SAMREC), have set out the minimum standards for the reporting of exploration results of any mineral. SAMREC modeled its code based on the code prepared by Joint Ore Reserves Committee of The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Australian Institute of Geoscientists and Minerals Council of Australia(JORC) (SAMREC, 2000).“……..the economically mineable material derived from a Measured and/or Indicated Mineral Resource. It is inclusive of diluting materials and allows for losses that may occur when the material is mined. Appropriate assessments,which may include feasibility studies, have been carried out, including consideration of, and modification by, realistically assumed mining,metallurgical, economic, marketing, legal, environmental, social and governmental factors. These assessments demonstrate at the time of reporting that extraction is reasonably justified. Mineral Reserves are subdivided in order of increasing confidence into Probable Mineral Reserves and Proved Mineral Reserves.”

Contents
Abstract 
Acknowledgements
List of Figures 
List of Tables 
Abbreviations 
Chapter 1: Orientation
1.1 Introduction 
1.2 Definitions 
1.2.1 Project management
1.2.2 Project delays
1.2.3 Greenfield and Brownfield mining projects
1.3 Problem Statement 
1.4 Objectives of research 
1.5 Hypotheses 
1.6 Delimitations of the study 
1.7 Chapters Outline
Chapter 2: Theory and practice of the causes and effects of delays in coal mining projects
2.1 Introduction 
2.2 Defining the project management process 
2.3 Coal deposits in South Africa
2.4 Coal mining in South Africa 
2.5 Defining delays and their effects 
2.6 A global perspective to project management causes and effects of delays 
2.7 African research on project management causes and effects of delays 
2.8 South African research on project management causes and effects of delays 
2.9 Coal mining projects 
2.10 Summary
Chapter 3: Research Methodology 
3.1 Introduction 
3.2 Research design 
3.2.1 Research type
3.2.2 Instrumentation
3.3 Sampling process 
3.4 Measurement scales 
3.5 Data collection 
3.6 Ethical considerations
3.7 Perceived limitations of the research 
3.8 Summary
Chapter 4: Research Results 
4.1 Introduction 
4.2 Sample 
4.3 Respondents 
4.4 Biographic data 
4.4.1 Gender of respondents
4.4.2 Age of respondents
4.4.3 Organization of respondents
4.4.4 Project management role of respondents
4.4.5 Project management experience of respondents
4.5 General questions related to the literature on delays and their effects 
4.5.1 Experiencing delays
4.5.2 Delays in the project management process
4.5.3 Measuring delays
4.5.4 Measuring delay classification
4.5.5 Delays from the perspective of Owners, Consultants and Contractors
4.5.6 The effects of delays experienced
4.6 Identifying types of delays related to the literature on delays and their effects 
4.6.1 Delays due to labor
4.6.2 Delays due to materials
4.6.3 Delays due to equipment
4.6.4 Delays due to contractors
4.6.5 Delays due to the owners
4.6.6 Delays due to the consultants
4.6.7 Delays due to exogenous factors (weather)
4.6.8 Delays due to government regulations
4.6.9 Factors related to coal mining projects that are possible delays
4.6.10 Delays due to specific mining issues
4.7 Conclusion 
Chapter 5: Synthesis and Analysis of Results 
5.1 Introduction 
5.1.1 Analysis description
5.1.2 Hypothesis testing
5.1.2.1 Significance level
5.2 There are no delays in coal mining projects in South Africa (Ho1) 
5.2.1 Hypothesis testing of Ho1
5.3 The delays experienced in projects in the coal mining industry in South Africa are not measured effectively (Ho2) 
5.3.1 Hypothesis testing of Ho2
5.4 The effects of delays in projects in the coal mining industry in South Africa are not measured effectively (Ho3) 
5.4.1 Hypothesis testing of Ho3
5.5 The majority of delays are not experienced during the planning phase of the project process (Ho4)
5.5.1 Hypothesis testing of Ho4
5.6 The majority of delays are not experienced during the execution phase of the project process (Ho5) 
5.6.1 Hypothesis testing of Ho5
5.7 Are consultants and contractors used in the coal mining industry in South Africa? 
5.8 What are the delays experienced in the coal mining industry in South Africa? 
5.9 What are the effects of delays experienced in the coal mining industry in South Africa? 
5.10 Summary of analysis and hypothesis testing 
5.11 Conclusion
Chapter 6: Conclusion and Recommendations
6.1 Introduction 
6.2 Conclusions
6.2.1 Project management personnel in the South African coal mining industry
6.2.2 Delay occurrence in the South African coal mining industry
6.2.3 Measuring delays in the South African coal mining industry
6.2.4 Delays during the project life cycle
6.2.5 The possible delays expected in coal mining projects in South Africa
6.2.6 The possible effects of delays expected in coal mining projects in South Africa
6.3 Recommendations
6.3.1 Measuring of delays
6.3.2 The occurrence of delays
6.3.3 The effects of delays
6.4 Recommendations for future research
6.4.1 Delays during the project life cycle
6.4.2 Knowledge management in coal mining projects
6.4.3 Mitigation methods for reducing delays in projects in coal mining projects
References 
Annexures 

GET THE COMPLETE PROJECT
Derivation of the Price Relationships in the Conceptual Framework

Related Posts