TREATMENT AND EDUCATIONAL INTERVENTIONS WITH RESPECT TO ASPERGER

Get Complete Project Material File(s) Now! »

Asperger syndrome and attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD)

A number of researchers have noted the comorbid symptoms of ADHD amongst AS individuals. Ghaziuddin et al (1998:280) reported on the occurrence of psychiatric disorders in a series of 35 patients, mean age, 15,1 years, all with a diagnosis of AS, according to DSM-IV criteria. Depression and ADHD were the most common comorbid diagnoses, with depression being more common in adolescents and adults and ADHD most common in prepubertal children. Four out of five cases of AS children were found to have comorbid ADHD. Ghaziuddin et al (1998:281) state that children with a diagnosis of ADHD who present with social difficulties should be carefully screened for AS.

Asperger syndrome and sensory issues

Atwood (2006:272) notes that children with AS can have one or several sensory systems that are affected in that everyday sensations are perceived as unbearably intense or apparently not perceived at all. The child with sensory sensitivity becomes hyper vigilant, tense and distractible in sensory stimulating environments. This is noted in the classroom or other busy public places, and fearful anticipation can cause anxiety. Sounds, lights, food textures, smell and gravitational insecurity are all sensory issues that can affect the child with AS. Church et al (2000:14) note 67% of the AS preschool children studied presented with sensory issues. In middle school this had reduced to 30 % where the AS adolescent rated tactile and auditory sensitivities as most problematic.

Motor functions

Motor clumsiness and awkwardness are referred to in the DSM-IV-TR (APA 2000:84) as possibly being present in AS, but if present would normally be mild. Attwood (2006:17) refers to the fact that often young children with coordination and dexterity problems will be referred to an occupational therapist whilst at pre-school for an assessment and therapy. The assessment may confirm delays in movement skills, or a movement disorder, which is often diagnosed before the child is diagnosed with AS. The connection between movement difficulties and AS was researched in two different studies (refer Table 3.3). In this thesis two test batteries have been used to assess motor functions.

Executive functions

Jacobsen (2005:33) notes that learners with AS have poor executive functioning. Executive functions are described by Lezak et al (2004:611) as intrinsic to the ability to respond to novel situations and are the basis of cognitive, emotional and social skills. The executive functions can be conceptualised as having four components, volition, planning, purposive action and effective performance. Volition is the capacity for intentional behaviour. It requires the individual to formulate a goal, or an intention. Motivation then is an important prerequisite for volition. Planning involves the identification of organisation of steps and elements needed to carry out an intention or achieve a goal (Lezak et al 2004:614). To be successful in planning, the individual must be able to conceptualise changes from present circumstances.

READ  NUTRITION OF PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN

The Wisconsin card sorting test -64 Card Version (WCST-64)

This test involves four stimulus cards and sixty four response cards. The four stimulus cards display one red triangle, two green stars, three yellow crosses and four blue circles respectively. These four stimulus cards reflect three stimulus parameters, colour, form and number. The response card deck consists of sixty four cards that also display figures of varying colours (red, blue, yellow or green), forms (crosses, circles, triangles or stars) and numbers of figures (one, two three or four). Each response card can be matched to a stimulus card on one or many combinations of the three stimulus parameters (Kongs, Thompson, Iverson & Heaton 2004:3).

RESEARCH METHODS: QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH

There are two broad categories of research methodology, quantitative and qualitative. A study is classified as qualitative if the purpose of the study is primarily to describe a phenomenon or situation (Kumar 2005:12). Qualitative research is concerned with collecting and analysing information in as many forms as possible and is mainly non-numeric. The focus is on exploring multiple issues and gathers required information from fewer respondents. The aim of the qualitative study is to achieve detail and depth (Blaxter, Hughes & Tight 2001:64).

TABLE OF CONTENTS :

  • CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCORY ORIENTATION
    • 1.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 1.2 AWARENESS OF THE PROBLEM AND STATEMENT O THE PROBLEM
    • 1.3 AIMS OF THE RESEARCH
    • 1.4 DELIMITATION OF THE RESEARCH
    • 1.5 ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS
    • 1.6 RESERARCH METHOD
    • 1.7 CLARIFICATION OF CONCEPTS
    • 1.8 RESEARCH PROGRAMME
  • CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE STUDY: ASPERGER SYNDROME
    • 2.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 2.2 HISTORY OF ASPERGER SYNDROME
    • 2.3 DIAGNOSIS OF ASPERGER SYNDROME
    • 2.4 PREVALENCE OF ASPERGER SYNDROME
    • 2.5 STUDIES WITH RESPECT TO ASPERGER SYNDROME
    • 2.6 ASPERGER SYNDROME AND NON VERBAL LEARNING DISABILITY
    • 2.7 THEORY OF MIND AND ASPERGER SYNDROME
    • 2.8 TREATMENT AND EDUCATIONAL INTERVENTIONS WITH RESPECT TO ASPERGER SYNDROME
  • CHAPTER 3: LITERATURE STUDY: NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT
    • 3.1 HISTORY OF NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT
    • 3.2 PROCEDURES FOR NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT
    • 3.3 QUESTIONAIRES AND RATING SCALES WITH ASPERGER SYNDROME
    • 3.3.1 Diagnostic assessment scale
    • 3.3.2 Asperger syndrome and attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD)
  • CHAPTER 4: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
    • 4.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 4.2 RESEARCH METHODS: QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
    • 4.3 RESEARCH DESIGN
    • 4.3.1 Literature study
    • 4.3.2 Collective case study
    • 4.4 DATA COLLECTION
    • 4.5 ANALYSIS OF DATA
    • 4.6 SUMMARY: DESCRIPTION OF INVESTIGATION
  • CHAPTER 5: PRESENTATION OF FINDINGS
    • 5.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 5.2 CASE STUDY 1 – REFERRED TO AS C.I
    • 5.2.1 Results: Questionnaires
    • 5.2.1.1 Conners’ parent and teachers questionnaire
    • 5.2.1.2 Gilliam Asperger’s disorder scale (GADS)
    • 5.2.1.3 Dunn’s sensory profile
    • 5.2.2 Results: Neuropsychological test battery
    • 5.2.2.1 Intelligence (IQ)
    • 5.2.2.2 Motor functions
    • 5.2.2.3 Academic achievement
    • 5.2.2.4 Theory of mind (ToM)
    • 5.2.2.5 Executive functions
    • 5.2.3 Results: Classroom and playground observations and interviews with teachers
  • CHAPTER 6: ANALYSIS OF FINDINGS, SUMMARY AND
    • RECOMMENDATIONS
  • CHAPTER 7: CONCLUSIONS
    • BIBLIOGRAPHY

GET THE COMPLETE PROJECT
THE NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL PROFILES OF LEARNERS WITH ASPERGER SYNDROME

Related Posts