Tylerian rationale and outcome based education (OBE)

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THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK THE BEVIS AND WATSON MODEL

INTRODUCTION

In chapter 1 an orientation to this study was provided by discussing the background to the problem, the problem statement, research question, purpose of the study, objectives,assumptions, significance of the study, conceptual framework, research methodology, terminology and the outline of the research report.
In this chapter, the conceptualisation of the Bevis and Watson Humanistic-Educative-CaringCurriculum Paradigm is discussed according to the following aspects:
• conceptual framework
• clarification of terminology
• Bevis and Watson’s Humanistic-Educative-Caring Curriculum Paradigm.

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

The conceptual framework within which this study was conducted (see figure 1.1 and folder insert appendix E) emanated from a previous qualitative research study undertaken by the researcher (Mouton 1997). The conceptual framework comprises a Curriculum Focus and six conceptual continuums. The Curriculum Focus represents a continuum between training and education. A training focus emphasises stimulus-response principles, that is, Tylerian behaviourism and an education focus emphasises interactions and learning, that is, the Bevis and Watson Humanistic-Educative-Caring perspective. The six conceptual continuums comprise the Learner Maturity Continuum, Teacher-student relationship, Teacher-student structure, Typology of Learning, Criteria for Teacher-Student Interactions and the Criteria for Selecting and Devising Learning Experiences. These six conceptual continuums each relate to the Curriculum Focus continuum.The reader is again reminded that for the present study, the researcher added the two conceptual continuums Teacher-student relationship and Teacher-student structure to the four Bevis and Watson mini-models. The Teacher-student structure conceptual continuum is a combination of the concepts teacher structure and student self-structure (see figure 1.1). As a result, throughout this study the six concepts comprising the conceptual framework are referred to as conceptual continuums.
The researcher viewed this conceptual framework a suitable conceptual foundation for this study as it:
• provided a network of concepts and relationships within which the question pertaining to this study was posed and data generated were integrated (Burns & Grove 2003:142,154-156; Woods & Catanzaro 1988:66)
• integrated the six conceptual continuums and suggested relationships to be considered in the study design (Burns & Grove 2003:142, 154-156; Woods & Catanzaro 1988:66)
• provided a context for interpreting research findings that might otherwise be isolated and difficult to interpret (Burns & Grove 2003:142, 154-156; Lo-Biondo Wood & Haber 1994:144; Polit & Beck 2004:119-120, 134-135)
• allowed for the derivation of hypotheses to be tested
• succinctly summarises the main events of the behaviourist-humanist controversy in nursing education.

CLARIFICATION OF TERMINOLOGY

In this section, the following terminology is discussed in terms of Bevis and Watson’s Humanistic-Educative-Caring Curriculum Paradigm:
• learning
• training
• education
• educated nurse
• caring nurse.
The reason for the “one sided” discussion is that Bevis and Watson’s work is in a sense reactionary; a humanistic-educative-caring reaction to Tylerian behaviourism.

Learning

Humanists view the learner as a unique individual and learning as a personal search for meaning. In this quest for meaning; growth, development and empowerment of the human being occurs and the learner attains self-actualisation (see section 4.4.2.1). Many aspects of learning cannot be evaluated. For example, understanding or caring. However, because caring and understanding cannot be measured does not mean that they do not exist (Bevis & Watson 1987:31, 265-266; Learn 1990:238-239). To humanists, learning is an active process where learners take responsibility for their learning by setting their own goals. As learners live in a continually, changing environment which requires continuous adaptation and reorientation, it is vital that learners be educated rather than merely trained, as educated minds will enable them to use strategies such as enquiry and problem solving, to deal with their ever changing and evolving circumstances. Learning, in the educational context is viewed as a process involving the transactions and interactions that occur between and among teachers and students (Bevis & Watson 1989:5). Thus, Bevis and Watson (1989:265) define educative learning as a process in which an individual cultivates the disciplined scholarship and experience necessary for expertise. This includes: acquiring insight; noticing patterns; finding meaning and significance; observing balance and wholeness; making compassionate and wise judgement while acquiring foresight; generating creative and flexible strategies; developing informed and skilled intentionality; identifying with the ethical and cultural traditions of the field; grasping the deeper structures of the knowledge base; expanding critical thinking ability and creativity; and finding pathways to new knowledge. Carper (1978:14), stated that learning can be achieved through reflection on practice by applying the fundamental patterns of knowing in nursing she identified, namely: empirical, ethical, personal and aesthetic patterns of knowing (Johns 1995:226-227). These patterns or ways of knowing are discrete but interrelated with, from a humanistic-educative-caring perspective, the aesthetic way of knowing forming the core and being informed by the empirical, the personal and the ethical dimensions of practice. This arrangement of Carper’s patterns of knowing has definite educational and didactic implications. Fay (1987 cited in Johns 1995:226) states that learning, through reflection is a process of enlightenment, empowerment and emancipation, has special appeal in this regard. In the same vein, La  Monica (1985:2) views learning as a continual process in which the student is an active participant. Each facet of the learner, thus all patterns of knowing, her thoughts, feelings and body are integrated into a learning modality that is based on content and experience. Learning in this situation becomes an individualised and aesthetic experience.Other definitions of learning which also emphasise some human and humanistic-educativecaring aspects include Woolfolk’s (1995:196) definition that learning is a relatively permanent change in the knowledge or behaviour of an individual as a result of experience.
Experiential learning according to Rogers and Freiberg (1994:36) entails elements such as: quality of personal involvement, it is self-initiated, pervasive, evaluated by the learner and its essence is meaning. In this instance Gagne (1985:2) states that learning entails a “change in human disposition or capability, which can be retained, and which is not simply ascribable to the process of growth” (Knowles, Holton & Swanson 1998:12, 17).

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CHAPTER 1 ORIENTATION TO THE STUDY
1.1 INTRODUCTION 
1.2 PROBLEM FORMULATION
1.2.1 Background to the problem
1.2.2 Problem statement
1.2.3 Research question
1.2.4 Purpose of the study
1.2.5 Objectives
1.2.5.1 Objectives during the developmental phase
1.2.5.2 Objectives during the testing phase
1.2.6 Assumptions
1.2.6.1 Theoretic-conceptual commitments
1.2.6.2 Methodological-technical commitments
1.2.6.3 Ontological commitments
1.2.7 Hypotheses
1.2.7.1 Hypothesis
1.2.7.2 Hypothesis
1.2.7.3 Hypothesis
1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 
1.3.1 Direction and focus
1.3.2 Scientific foundation of nursing
1.3.3 Curriculum refocus
1.3.4 Quality assurance instrument
1.4 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK 
1.4.1 Description of the conceptual framework
1.4.1.1 Curriculum Focus
1.4.1.2 The Bevis and Watson six conceptual continuums
1.4.1.3 Training-Education Continuum
1.5 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 
1.5.1 Research design
1.5.2 Research technique and instrument
1.5.3 Sampling design
1.5.4 Pretesting the instrument
1.5.5 Data collection methods
1.5.6 Data analysis
1.5.7 Developmental phase: validity and reliability during data
collection and analysis
1.5.8 Testing phase: validity and reliability during data collection
and analysis
1.6 ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS 
1.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY 
1.8 TERMINOLOGY 
1.9 OUTLINE OF THE RESEARCH REPORT 
1.10 OUTLINE OF THE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 
1.11 SUMMARY 
CHAPTER 2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK THE BEVIS AND WATSON MODEL
2.1 INTRODUCTION 
2.2 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK 
2.3 CLARIFICATION OF TERMINOLOGY 
2.4 THE BEVIS AND WATSON HUMANISTIC-EDUCATIVE-  CARING CURRICULUM PARADIGM
2.5 DESCRIPTION OF THE BEVIS AND WATSON MODEL 
2.5.1 Learner Maturity Continuum
2.5.1.1 Immature positions
2.5.1.2 Mature positions
2.5.1.3 Teacher-student relationship
2.5.1.4 Teacher structure and Student self-structure
2.5.2 Typology of Learning
2.5.2.1 Different types of learning
2.5.2.2 Description of the Typology of Learning
2.5.2.2.1 Item learning
2.5.2.2.2 Directive learning
2.5.2.2.3 Rationale learning
2.5.2.2.4 Contextual learning
2.5.2.2.5 Syntactical learning
2.5.2.2.6 Inquiry learning
2.5.3 Criteria for Teacher-Student Interactions
2.5.4 Criteria for Selecting and Devising Learning Experiences
2.5.4.1 The impact of Benner’s research
2.5.4.2 Triple Jump method
2.6 SUMMARY 
CHAPTER 3 LITERATURE REVIEW THE BEHAVIOURISTIC PARADIGM
3.1 INTRODUCTION 
3.2 CLARIFICATION OF TERMINOLOGY 
3.2.1 Learning
3.2.2 Training
3.2.3 Education
3.3 THE BEHAVIOURISTIC FRAMEWORK
3.3.1 Classical conditioning
3.3.2 Behaviourism
3.3.3 Law of effect
3.3.4 Operant conditioning
3.3.5 Bandura’s social learning theory
3.3.6 Bruner’s theory of discovery learning
3.4 TYLERIAN RATIONALE AND OUTCOME BASED  EDUCATION (OBE)
3.4.1 Outcome Based Education (OBE)
3.4.2 Tylerian rationale
3.4.2.1 Instrumentalism
3.4.2.2 Curriculum development
3.5 DISCUSSION OF THE TYLER RATIONALE AND THE  BEVIS AND WATSON HUMANISTIC-EDUCATIVE- CARING CURRICULUM PARADIGM
3.5.1 Question one
3.5.1.1 Teacher-student relationship, Teacher structure and Student  self-structure
3.5.1.2 Immature positions on the Learner Maturity Continuum
3.5.1.3 Mature positions on the Learner Maturity Continuum
3.5.2 Question two
3.5.2.1 Learning by contract
3.5.3 Question three
3.5.4 Question four
3.5.4.1 An interpretive-criticism approach
3.6 SUMMARY
CHAPTER 4 LITERATURE REVIEW THE HUMANISTIC-EDUCATIVE-CARING CURRICULUM PARADIGM
4.1 INTRODUCTION 
4.2 HUMANISTIC-EDUCATIVE-CARING CURRICULUM PARADIGM
4.3 AFFECTIVE EDUCATION 
4.3.1 Foundations of affect
4.3.1.1 Human dignity
4.3.1.1.1 Freedom
4.3.1.1.2 Caring and Justice
4.3.1.1.3 Equality
4.3.1.1.4 Peace
4.3.2 History of affect in the curriculum
4.3.2.1 Religious-based moral education
4.3.2.2 Classical humanism
4.3.2.3 Child-centred movements
4.3.2.4 Character education
4.3.2.5 Social efficiency movement
4.3.2.5.1 Social reconstructionism and engineering of consent
4.3.2.6 Life adjustment education
4.3.2.7 Decline of the concept affect
4.4 HUMANISTIC EDUCATION 
4.4.1 Humanistic psychology
4.4.1.1 Values education
4.4.1.2 Values clarification
4.4.1.3 Cognitive-moral developmental education
4.4.2 Humanism as a philosophy of education
4.4.2.1 Beliefs about education
4.4.2.2 The university
4.4.2.3 The learner
4.4.2.4 The nature of method
4.4.2.5 Social progress
4.4.3 Humanism and human care nursing education
4.4.3.1 The moral dimension
4.4.4 Student centred learning theories
4.4.4.1 Self-directed learning
4.4.4.2 Individualised learning
4.5 DEVELOPMENTAL EDUCATION 
4.6 CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT IN THE 
POST-MODERN ERA
4.7 SUMMARY 
CHAPTER 5 LITERATURE REVIEW RECENT TRENDS AND ISSUES IN SOUTH AFRICA
5.1 INTRODUCTION 
5.2 RECENT TRENDS AND ISSUES IN SOUTH AFRICA 
5.3 SUMMARY 
CHAPTER 6 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
6.1 INTRODUCTION 
6.2 THE CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK AND HYPOTHESES 
6.3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY FOR THE DEVELOPMENT 
AND TESTING OF THE INSTRUMENT
6.4 DEVELOPMENTAL PHASE 
6.5 TESTING PHASE
6.6 DATA ANALYSIS 
6.7 ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS 
6.8 SUMMARY 

CHAPTER 7 RESULTS OF THE STUDY
7.1 INTRODUCTION 
7.2 ANALYSIS OF THE BIOGRAPHICAL DATA
7.3 RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF THE INSTRUMENT
7.4 STATISTICS ON ITEMS AND CONCEPTUAL 
CONTINUUMS
7.5 CONCLUSION 
7.6 SUMMARY 
CHAPTER 8 SUMMARY OF THE STUDY,FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
8.1 INTRODUCTION
8.2 SUMMARY OF THE STUDY 
8.3 SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS 
8.4 CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
8.5 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
8.6 ATTAINMENT OF RESEARCH OBJECTIVES 
8.7 CONCLUSION

GET THE COMPLETE PROJECT
THE DEVELOPMENT OF A MEASURING INSTRUMENT TO DETERMINE THE EDUCATIONAL FOCUS OF STUDENTS AT A NURSING COLLEGE

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