Chapter 2: Literature Review
Water Supply, Access and its Implication
As stated by WHO & UNICEF (2013), the Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation defined safe drinking water as “water with microbial, chemical and physical characteristics that meets WHO guidelines or national standards on drinking water quality.”The guidelines include an assessment of the health risks presented by the various microbial, chemical, radiological and physical constituents that may be present in drinking water.
According to WHO/UNICEF (2012), Lack of potable water is a vast problem and a major cause of death and disease in the world. 783 million people worldwide are without improved drinking water, and the World Health Organization estimates that lack of proper drinking water causes 1.6 million deaths each year from diarrheal and parasitic diseases. In many parts of the world river water which can be highly turbid is used for drinking purposes. This turbidity is conventionally removed by treating the water with expensive chemicals; many countries must import expensive chemicals to clarify the water, limiting the amount they can afford to produce these imported chemicals with a great expense.
Purifying water may reduce the concentration of particulate matter including suspended particles, parasites, bacteria, algae, viruses, fungi, as well as reducing the amount of a range of dissolved and particulate material derived from the surfaces that come from runoff due to rain. Chemical coagulants like Aluminum sulfate (alum), FeCl2 are used in municipal drinking water treatment plant for purification process. This excess use of amount of chemical coagulants can affect human health e.g. Aluminum has also been indicated to be a causative agent in neurological diseases such as pre-se-nile dementia.
Studies by Fewtrell et al., (2005); and Waddington et al. (2009) have reported the significant positive effect of clean water on reducing the risk of childhood diarrhea. Moreover, improved water quality has been shown to lower the health risks related to bilharzia, trachoma, intestinal helminths and other water-related diseases. In addition, improved water quality is likely to reduce the burden of disease related to other major health issues by reducing the average stress level for the immune system, and thus strengthening the resistance to respond to new infections.
According to the study conducted on the impact of water and sanitation on children nutritional status in a cohort of Peruvian children revealed that nutritional status is related to the quality of water and sanitation interventions and highlights the need to improve sanitation in developing countries. More consistent water sources reduce the risk of contaminated water, decrease the diarrheal incidence, and helps for better growth in children.
Water Sources of Ethiopia
Ethiopia receives an average annual rainfall of around 1,200 mm. Its distribution is highly uneven, with 80 to 90 percent of surface water potential occurring in basins in the western and southwestern parts of the country. The central and eastern parts of the country have less than 20 percent of the total surface water. Some areas of the southeastern part of the country receive less than 200 mm of rainfall per year. The rainfall, when it does arrive, can often overwhelm local drainages, resulting in flooding that affects both livelihood and lives, limited infrastructure for water storage and watersheds protection further exacerbate these problems (Nuru, 2012).
Surface Water Sources of Ethiopia
As reported by Awulachew et al. (2007), Ethiopia has eight river basins, one lake basin, and three dry basins that do not support any perennial rivers (Figure 1.1). These basins can be categorized as follows: river basins (Tekeze, Abbay, Baro–Akobo, Omo–Gibe, Genale Dawa, Wabi Shebele, Awash, Danakil ); Lake Basin (Rift Valley Lakes); dry basins (Mereb, Ayisha, Ogaden). With the exception of the Awash River and Rift Valley Lakes Basins, these are transboundary.
Nuru (2012) reported that the Abbay, Baro–Akobo, M ereb, and Tekeze Rivers flow into Sudan, cross into Egypt and drain to the Mediterranean forming part of the Nile Basin system. The Omo–Gibe River is the major tribu tary to Lake Turkana, which lies between Ethiopia and Kenya. The Omo–Gibe enter s the Ethiopian part of Lake Turkana, making the lake an international water basin. The Genale Dawa and Wabi Shebele Rivers flow into Somalia before disappearing into the sand near the Indian Ocean. The remaining three basins are also trans-boundary, although they do not generate any trans-boundary run-off.
Groundwater Sources of Ethiopia
Groundwater is used as the most important source of drinking water supply in the world. In both developed and developing countries, the use of groundwater has been increased among the populations in rural areas, as well as in the rapidly expanding urban areas. As a result of the inadequate availability of surface water and its continuous deterioration in quality, the dependence on groundwater will increase even further during the next decades.
Groundwater has many advantages over surface water. In its natural state, it is free from pathogenic microorganisms and has lower concentrations of organic matter. The occurrence of groundwater in Ethiopia is influenced by the country’s geology, geomorphology, tectonics, and climate. These factors influence the availability, storage, quality, and accessibility of groundwater in different parts of the country.
In some lowland areas of the country (e.g. Somali Region) groundwater is only available at depth while, in other areas, its quality poses a risk to human health (e.g. from high fluoride concentrations in the Rift Valley). However, groundwater is of potable quality and can be developed in a cost-effective manner to meet dispersed demands across much of the country. Hence groundwater, accessed through wells, boreholes or springs, probably provides over 90 percent of improved rural water supply and underpins efforts to achieve the drinking water targets set out in the UAP.
About 8.4% of the urban and 56.8% of the rural population of the Ethiopia utilize groundwater sources for potable water consumption (FMOH, 2006).
At the national level, a water supply and sanitation master plan covering a development scenario up to 2025 envisage the construction of more than 60,000 schemes, the majority of which include hand dug wells and springs development. Groundwater abstraction for consumption purposes will therefore continue to rise due to increased population and the associated demand. However, the geology of the country is not favorable for the efficient use of groundwater resources due to excessive extraction costs (DHV, 2003).
The accessibility of water with respect to population distribution and settlement also presents challenges. Approximately 85 percent of Ethiopia’s surface water is found in the western basins, but only 40 percent of the population lives in these areas. The bulk of the population is concentrated in the highlands because of favorable climatic conditions, but water storage in these areas is lower. The lowlands have greater surface water flows, groundwater storage, and land availability, but remain sparsely populated.
Water Service Provision Options
According to UN-HABITAT (2006), Water service provision options are standpipes, yard, and house connections. In household connection, water service provision, the water pipe is connected within house plumbing to one or more taps (e.g. in the kitchen and bathroom) or tap placed in the yard or plot outside the house. Public tap or standpipe is a public water point from which people can collect water. Many low-income households that are unable to afford a household connection are relying on public water points.
Water Accessibility and Indicators
According to UN-HABITAT, (2003), Access to safe water is the distribution of the population with reasonable access to a sufficient amount of safe water. Safe water includes treated surface water and untreated but uncontaminated water such as from springs sanitary wells and boreholes. In urban areas, the water source may be a public fountain or a standpipe not more than 200 meters away from households. A sufficient amount of water is that which is needed to satisfy metabolic, hygienic and domestic requirements usually about, 20 liters of safe water per person per day. This minimum quantity, however, varies depending on whether it’s an urban location or rural and whether warm or hot climate. Accessibility must be seen within the situation of the ease with which people can get the services of a facility and function. Accessibility increases with decreasing constraint both physical and social. Water accessibility is the balance between the demand for and the supply of consumer services over a geographic space and narrowing or bridging the gap between geographic spaces is all significance of transport.
As stated by WHO (2004), to measure water accessibility there are basic indicators. These indicators show four main levels of water accessibility that includes optimal access, intermediate access, basic access and no access. These are indicative of the level of water availability, which is a measure of the quantity available for use.
Basically, they reflect the extent to which accessibility challenges such as time, distance and affordability are formidable or otherwise.
Chapter 1: Introduction
1.2. Statement of Problem
1.3. Significance of the study
1.4. Rationale of the study
1.5. Scope of the study
1.6. Aims and Objectives of the study
Chapter 2: Literature Review
2.1. Water Supply, Access and its Implication
2.2. Water Sources of Ethiopia
2.3. Surface Water Sources of Ethiopia
2.4. Groundwater Sources of Ethiopia
2.5. Water Service Provision Options
2.6. Water Accessibility and Indicators
2.7. Sources of Drinking Water
2.8. Water-related GTP
2.9. Water Coverage in Ethiopia
2.10. Availability of Adequate Water
2.11. Household Water Handling, Storage and Treatment
2.12. Personal Hygiene and Hand Washing Practices
2.13. Personal Hygiene
2.14. Hand Washing
2.15. Water Scarcity and its Causes and Coping Strategies.
2.17. Causes of Water Scarcity
2.18. Environmental Sanitation and Communicable Diseases
2.19. Needs of Water Supply and Sanitation
2.20. Water Security, Sanitation, and Poverty
2.21. Sanitation and Hygiene in Ethiopia: Status and Targets
2.22. The Sustainable Development Goals on Water and Sanitation .
2.23. Access to Basic Sanitation
2.24. Health and Water Quality
2.25. Benefits of Improving Access to Water and Sanitation
2.26. Water Quality Parameters
2.27. Bacteriological Water Quality Parameters
2.28. Conventional Drinking Water Treatment
2.29. Moringa stenopetala Seed Powder for Water Treatment
2.30. Water Supply and Sanitation Policy in Ethiopia
2.32. Challenges in Water Supply and Sanitation
Chapter 3: The Research Design and Methods
3.1. Study Area and Period
3.2. Research Method
3.3. Research design
3.4. Sample Size Determination and Sampling Procedures
3.5. Study Variables
3.6. Data Quality Control
3.7. Sampling Procedures and Data Collection Methods
3.8. In-Depth Interview
3.9. Collection and Preparation of the Seeds of Moringa Stenopetala
3.10. Water Sample Collection and Analysis
3.11. Multivariable Logistic Regression
3.12. Ethical Considerations
3.13. Dissemination of Results
Chapter 4: Results
4.1. Sanitation-Hygiene Practices and childhood diarrhea among households in Robe and Ginnir town of Bale Zone Oromia Regional state South East Ethiopia
4.2. Physico-chemical and Bacteriological Water Analysis of water samples from Ginnir and Robe towns
Chapter 5: Discussion
5.1.Sanitation-Hygiene Practices and childhood diarrhea among households in Robe and Ginnir town of Bale Zone Oromia Regional state South East Ethiopia
5.2. Physicochemical quality of drinking water
5.3. Moringa stenopetala seed powder for water treatment
Chapter 6: Conclusion and Recommendations
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