DEVELOPMENT OF EMPLOYEE ASSISTANCE PROGRAMME IN THE DEPARTMENT OF CORRECTIONAL SERVICES

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CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW – THE EMPLOYEE ASSISTANCE PROGRAMME

INTRODUCTION

This literature review presents a retrospective overview of the developments in the EAP industry by initially focussing on the most modern interventions and thereafter moving to the origins. The literature review will also attempt to reflect on existing standards associated with these interventions and benchmarks during the evolution of the EAP. In trying to understand EAPs as they exist today it is necessary to define the context within which they have developed both within South Africa and the United States. This entails a review of the historical background, definitions of EAP models and relevant service delivery as well as factors that have influenced the development of EAPs through choice, core technology, and criterion set for maintaining standards. This literature study will trace the evolution of EAP and will cover crucial issues that have shaped modern EAPs, including the development of occupational social work (OSW) in countries around the world. EAPs as they exist today are a result of decades of evolutionary processes, which have not only been influenced by the history and dynamics of the countries that they have originated in, but also organizations which house them and occupational groups that have taken the responsibility to cultivate human service needs.

HISTORY OF EAP

Modern trends in EAP

Prohofsky (2007:27) traces the evolution of EAPs. She indicates that EAPs were established in the mid–1940s to address substance abuse issues. This objective did not change much over the next 30 years but by the mid–1970’s there were other challenges that employees were facing that had to be addressed. Some of the concerns included marital concerns, family issues, and prescription drug abuse, all of which began to fall under the expanding realm of EAPs. Prohofsky goes on to say that EAPs have continued to evolve, promoting wellness, productivity, and work/life balance services to meet the burgeoning needs of a diverse global work force. Epstein and Rubin (2007:13) further elaborate on the globalisation of EAPby stating that workforce performance and productivity issues are not confined to national borders. They are of the opinion that EAPs should not only be provided within a countries’ borders but that multinational organisations with locations around the world are also responsible for providing EAP resources to work forces within multiple locations globally which includes employees from diverse cultures, religions and races.

Value of EAP

While standards for EAPs were only introduced in South Africa in the late1990’s and in the United States prior to this, the success of modern EAPs is based on demonstrating their value. This is echoed by Jorgensen(2007: 16) in his article on demonstrating EAP value. He states that EAPs provide many services including counselling, critical incidence responses, support for management, and many more; yet EAPs are unable to demonstrate effectively the calculable extent of how valuable they are to organisations. EAPs need to demonstrate that they belong to the world of work and not just to the world of health care. Both the pricing model (standard no. 4) and evaluation (standard no. 27) of the Employee Assistance Professionals Association of South Africa’s (EAPA SA) standards document support Jorgensen’s idea of communicating to organisations what EAPs do in real terms as well as providing verified evidence in a format that employers and human resource managers understand, appreciate and want.Jorgensen (2007: 16) elaborates further on how to demonstrate service effectiveness and EAP value. He indicates that the EAP industry has fallen into the trap of trying to communicate value simply by utilisation and supporting whoever can produce the highest number of attendees at the lowest cost. The employer does not necessarily win but the contractor does. There is a need to calculate value, demonstrate value and communicate value. The impact summary (below) as indicated by Jorgensen (2007: 16) measures the total approach as a balanced scorecard would. EAP Impact Summary A full-service EAP provider offers a wide variety of services in addition to employee counselling. It is this synergistic combination of clinical and organizational support services that maximizes the economic benefit for client organizations. Service utilization data for 2005, of a large organisation that provides an EAP service to its employees in the United States of America, is displayed below.

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CHAPTER 1
1. GENERAL INTRODUCTION 
1.1 Basic premises in the Department of Correctional Services
1.2 The Employee Assistance Programme
1.3 Perspectives on the EAP
1.4 EAPA SA standards
2. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY 
3. PROBLEM FORMULATION
4. PURPOSE / GOAL AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 
4.1 Goal
4.2 Objectives
5. RESEARCH QUESTION 
6. RESEARCH APPROACH 
7. TYPE OF RESEARCH 
8. RESEARCH DESIGN 
8.1 Data Collection
8.2 Data Analysis
9. PILOT STUDY
9.1 Feasibility of the study
9.2 Pilot test of the data-collection instrument
10. DESCRIPTION OF THE RESEARCH POPULATION, DELIMITATION/ BOUNDARY OF SAMPLE AND SAMPLING METHOD
10.1 Population
10.2 Sample and sampling method
11. ETHICAL ISSUES 
12. DEFINITION OF KEY CONCEPTS 
13. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW – THE EMPLOYEE ASSISTANCE PROGRAMME 
1. INTRODUCTION
2. HISTORY OF EAP
2.1 Modern trends in EAP
2.2. Value of EAP
2.3 EAP and risk management
2.4 Strategic positioning of EAP
2.5 Training of modern Employee Assistance Professionals
2.6 EAPs and comprehensive wellness programmes
2.7 EAP and Work Life
2.8 EAPs and Organisational Culture
2.9 EAPs and future growth
2.10 EAPs and human capital
3. HISTORY OF OCCUPATIONAL SOCIAL WORK AND LINKS TO EAP 
3.1 Occupational Social Work and EAP in Australia
3.2 Occupational Social Work and EAP in Germany
3.3 Occupational Social Work and EAP in India
3.4 Occupational Social Work and EAP in Ireland
3.5 Occupational Social Work and EAP in the United States
3.6 Occupational Social Work and EAP in South Africa
3.6.1 Training in Occupational Social Work
3.6.2 Legislation and EAP in South Africa
4. Models of EAP 
4.1 The External Model
4.1.1 The Contract Model
4.1.2 The Consortium Model
4.1.3 The Hot – line Model
4.1.4 The Blended Model
4.2 The Internal model
4.3 Table of comparison between in-house and off-site models
4.4 Core Technology
4.4.1. Consultation and training
4.4.2. Problem identification and assessment
4.4.3. Constructive confrontation
4.4.4. Referral for diagnosis, treatment and assistance
4.4.5. Consultation to work organization
4.4.6. Consultation with work organization for health
4.4.7. Evaluation
5. DEFINITIONS OF EAP
6. CONCLUSION 
CHAPTER 3 DEVELOPMENT OF EMPLOYEE ASSISTANCE PROGRAMME IN THE DEPARTMENT OF CORRECTIONAL SERVICES
1 . EAP IN DCS 
2. INVESTIGATION REPORT
3. REPORT ON EMPLOYEE ASSISTANCE PILOT WORKSHOP (19 January to 15 April 1999) 
4. RECOMMENDATIONS 
5. CONCLUSION 
CHAPTER 4: EAPASA STANDARDS
1. INTRODUCTION 
2. STRUCTURE 
3. PURPOSE 
4. DEFINITION OF AN EAP 
5. SIGNIFICANCE AND USE OF PROFESSIONAL
STANDARDS 
6. GLOSSARY 
7. STANDARDS
8. CONCLUSION 
CHAPTER 5. EMPIRICAL STUDY ON THE NATURE AND FORMAT OF EAP STANDARDS WITHIN THE DEPARTMENT OF CORRECTIONAL SERVICES 
1. INTRODUCTION 
2. PILOT QUESTIONNAIRE 
3. STANDARDS QUESTIONNAIRE 
4. RESPONSES PER STANDARD 
5. SUMMARY OF QUANTATIVE RESULTS 
6. ANALYSIS OF QUALITATIVE DATA 
7. SUMMARY OF QUALITATIVE RESULTS
8. ANALYSIS OF QUALITATIVE DATA FROM FOCUS GROUPS 
9. SUMMARY OF QUALITATIVE RESULTS FROM
THE FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSIONS 
CHAPTER 6: CONSOLIDATED CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
1. INTRODUCTION
2. CHAPTER 1: GENERAL ORIENTATION TO THE STUDY 
3. CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW – THE EMPLOYEE ASSISTANCE PROGRAMME 
4. CHAPTER 3: DEVELOPMENT OF EAP IN DCS 
5. CHAPTER 4: EAPASA STANDARDS 
6 CHAPTER 5: EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS 
7. EVALUATION OF THE GOALS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 
8. EVALUATION OF THE RESEARCH QUESTION 
9. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH 
10. REFERENCES

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