EF Energy Land Areas of Different Transport Modes

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Chapter 2 Auckland and Its Transport

Physical Conditions of Auckland

Auckland is unique as a region in New Zealand. It is dominated by New Zealand‘s largest urban area and contains the biggest economic centre of this country. The Auckland Region is home to 30% of the nation‘s population yet this region only represents 2% of New Zealand‘s land area. The region‘s mainland area covers 4,518 square kilometers, with the metropolitan area covering 530 square kilometers (ARC, 1998, p.14). In 2004, the total population in the Auckland Region was 1,316,700 (Statistics New Zealand, 2004, p.2).Before Captain William Hobson chose Auckland as his site of government, the original Maori residents had lived there for hundreds of years (Stone, 2001, p.3). The first urban plan of Auckland was devised by Felton Mathew in 1841, and was in the image of a contemporary English city (Austin, 1991, p.39). Transport in the period of the second half of the 19th century was limited to walking and horse- drawn vehicles. For example, describing his life as a boy in Auckland during the 1890s, Alan Mulgan (1958, pp.37-38) wrote the following words in his autobiography.We usually walked to places, partly because we were hard up, partly because transport was poor. We walked to school and walked back…Many men in city offices walked to work and walked back…Concert and theatre goers walked home When I spent weekends at my grandfather‟s parsonage at Onehunga I would walk back to Parnell on the Sunday night, and think little of it.The main public transport vehicle generally used in Auckland at that time is the horse-drawn tram.The report of A brief history of Auckland’s urban form says ―In 1884, the first horse-drawn tram operated between Queen Street and Ponsonby. Horse-drawn trams became a common form of public transport and an extensive network radiated along major roads such as Dominion, Mt Eden and Manukau Roads‖ (ARC, 2010, p.9) During that period, Auckland developed very slowly because of the transport limitations.The limitation of speed, carrying capacity per unit, and efficiency of operation of Auckland‟s transport at this time had a retarding effect upon urban expansion. The speed of horse transport was not sufficient to allow a suburban residential population to live more than two or three miles from the central core, without spending long periods of time in travel. (Armstrong, 1958, p.88).An initial expansion of the suburbs in Auckland was based on the use of horse-drawn and then electric trams (Stewart, 2002). This expansion was greatly enhanced between 1915 and 1969 due to the rapid increase in motor transport. Following the massive expansion of suburban areas and the growth of peripheral industries people began to live and be employed outside the urban area with transport provided by their private cars. This period could be called ‗The Motor Age‘ (ACC, 1969), during which a greater Auckland was shaped.Greater Auckland, also the Auckland Region, now includes the four cities of Auckland City, North Shore City, Manukau City, Waitakere City and the three districts of Rodney District, Papakura District and Franklin District (see Figure 2.1).The region covers 500,000 hectares, with 57,000 hectares of urban area (ARC, 2007). The Auckland Regional Council provides the government to deal with the affairs of the whole region and each city or district in addition has its own independent council. This situation is changing at the time of writing (2010) as Auckland‘s component cities and districts are being amalgamated into a single entity. However, this thesis was mainly written when the structure described above was still in operation.

ABSTRACT
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF FIGURES
ABBREVIATION
UNIT & CONVERSION
Chapter 1 Introduction and Literature Review
1.1. Sustainable Development and Sustainability
1.2. Indicators and Sustainability Indicators
1.2.1. Indicators
1.2.2. Traditional Indicators and Sustainability Indicators
1.2.3. Criteria of Good Sustainability Indicator
1.2.4. Categories of Sustainability Indicators
1.2.5. Some Key Sustainability Indicators and Indicator Frameworks
1.2.6. Sustainability Indicators in New Zealand
1.3. Sustainable Transport and Indicators
1.3.1. Definitions of Sustainable Transport
1.3.2. Nine Principles of Sustainable Transport
1.3.3. Sustainable Transport Indicators
1.3.4. Sustainable Transport Strategies and Indicators in New Zealand
1.4. Ecological Footprint Indicator 
1.4.1 Why the Ecological Footprint is chosen as the Methodology
1.4.2 Comprehensive Application of Ecological Footprint
1.4.3 Two Data Collection Models of Ecological Footprint
1.4.4 Application of Ecological Footprint in New Zealand
1.4.5 Disputes over the Ecological Footprint
1.4.6 Ecological Footprint and Sustainable Transport
Chapter 2 Auckland and Its Transport
2.1 Physical Conditions of Auckland
2.2 Transport Situations in Auckland
2.2.1 Transport in Auckland
2.2.2 Current Transport Issues in Auckland
2.2.3 Reasons for Current Transport Issues by Policy-making
2.3 Sustainable Transport Development in Auckland
Chapter 3 Research Questions
3.1 Research Background
3.2 Research Questions
3.3 Research Aims and Objectives
3.4 Research Theories and Methods
Chapter 4 EF Energy Land Areas of Different Transport Modes
4.1 Introduction
4.2 EF energy land calculation for transport
4.3 CO2 emissions of different transport modes in the Auckland Region
4.3.1 Auckland Air Emissions Inventory and its contribution to this thesis
4.3.2 Some backgrounds for CO2 emissions calculation of motor vehicles
4.3.3 CO2 emissions of motor vehicles in the Auckland Region in 2004
4.3.4 CO2 Emissions of other motorized modes in the Auckland Region in 2004
4.3.5 CO2 Emissions of non-motorized modes in the Auckland Region in 2004
4.4 EF of fuel consumption and embodied energy of different transport modes in the Auckland Region
Chapter 5 EF Energy Land Area of transport-related infrastructures
5.1 Embodied CO2 emissions from road network construction in Auckland
5.2 Embodied CO2 emissions from rail network construction in Auckland
5.3 Embodied CO2 emissions from airport runways construction in Auckland
5.4 Summaries
Chapter 6 EF energy land Area of Different Transport Modes from Infrastructure Operation
Chapter 7 EF built land Area of Different Transport Modes
7.1 Introduction
7.2 EF built land calculation for transport
Chapter 8 EF land Area (total and breakdown) of Different Transport Modes in Auckland
8.1 Total EF of various transport modes
8.2 Comparison of EF of various passenger transport modes
8.3 Comparison of EF of various freight transport modes
8.4 Comparison of EF of various leisure transport modes 
8.5 EF intensity and EF efficiency of each mode in Auckland
8.6 Comparison of transport-related EF between Auckland and UK
8.7 EF Land and Bio-capacity in Auckland
8.8 Comparison of EF estimation in some studies
Chapter 9 Historical study on EF of transport in Auckland
9.1 Three analytical years for historical study
9.2 Transport EF in 1955 in Auckland
9.3 Transport EF in 2004 in Auckland
9.4 Transport EF in 2016 in Auckland
9.5 Comparisons of EF in 1955, 2004, and 2016
Chapter 10 Conclusions and Further Studies
10.1 Answers to research questions
10.2 Conclusions
10.3 Further studies

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A modified Ecological Footprint method for assessing sustainable transport in the Auckland Region

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