SRL AS A MODERATOR OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PARENTING STYLE AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT

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The monitoring phase

Phase two of the model includes different types of monitoring processes which indicate the meta-cognitive awareness of the different aspects of the self or the task and the context (Lajoie & Azevedo, 2006:812). Accordingly, the monitoring phase entails the awareness of actions and its outcomes which provide information that helps the student to control cognition, behaviour, motivation, and context (Ireson, 2008:64). Cognitive monitoring refers to the awareness and monitoring of the students’ cognition which is related to ‘meta-cognition’. Pintrich identifies two main types of monitoring activities, namely judgment of learning – this means the determination of the students’ success when they learn, and a feeling of knowing – this is when the students believe that they know an answer but cannot recall it immediately (Moseley, et al., 2005:237). Judgment of learning is involved when the students actively monitor their reading comprehension by asking questions and remembering what they have learnt in class when they are preparing for a test (Pintrich & Blazevski, 2004:39). Motivational monitoring means that the students become aware of their own selfefficacies, values, attributions, interests and anxieties (Schunk, 2005:86). Research indicates the indirect method that students use to control and regulate their motivation and affect (Pintrich & Blazevski, 2004:46). “In cognitive research, it can be assumed that for individuals to try to control their efficacy, value, interest, or anxiety, they would have to be aware of their beliefs and affects, and monitor them at some level”, according to Pintrich (2000:463).

The control phase

The third phase in Pintrich’s framework of SRL is the control phase. This phase includes the effort that is exerted to control and regulate the various types of the self or the tasks and contexts (Lajoie & Azevedo, 2006:812). In this phase the students attempt to control their cognitions, their motivation, their behaviour, and the contextual factors by the information gained through monitoring with the aim of boosting their learning (Schunk, 2005:86). The cognitive area involves the various types of cognitive and meta-cognitive strategies that the individuals use to control and regulate their cognition (Kadhiravan & Suresh, 2008:128). Cognitive control and regulation are highly related to cognitive monitoring, which involves the selection and use of cognitive strategies for memorising, reasoning, and problem-solving (Pintrich, 2004:393). Controlling indicates the efforts of the students who actively manage, modify or change their strategies to sustain their effectiveness in whatever they are doing.

The reaction and reflection phase

In this phase the cognitive area involves the students’ judgments and evaluation of their performance in the task, as well as their attributions for performance (Pintrich & Zusho, 2002:75). The cognitive reaction and reflection process refers to the personal reflection that is made, based on the performance, and includes evaluation and the acknowledgment of personal outcomes that were reached. If the students are effective self-regulators, they tend to ascribe their performance outcomes to their own efforts and strategies, instead of to ability (Moseley, et al., 2005:237). The students assess their performances, and these assessments form the basis of their efforts to regulate their motivation, behaviour and context. Motivation reactions refer to the efforts that are made to foster motivation when the students discover that they have lost their motivation. For example, they can ascribe their poor performance to a lack of effort instead of to a lack of ability, and they can feel proud after experiencing success, or get angry when they have failed (Schunk, 2005:87)

Cognitive strategies

Cognitive strategies are used when the students actively organise information that they have to learn to enhance their achievement (Slater, 2004:47). Pintrich, et al., (1991:19-21) indicated that cognitive strategies include rehearsal, elaboration and organisation. Rehearsal strategies, as a form of cognitive strategy, are important for simple tasks, and entail reciting and naming items from a list to be learned. Rehearsal is one of the best strategies to organise information in the short-term memory rather than in the long-term memory. Rehearsal strategies do not help students to relate or to integrate new information with existing information. Instead, by rehearsing the material, the students try to memorise keywords. However, they rarely identify the essential terms that are used in a course (Baharom, Idos & Razak, 2003:7; Pintrich, et al., 1991:19; Woolfolk, 2010:242). Rehearsal strategies are also important in learning complex information when it is used beyond repeating information.

Parenting style and academic achievement

It is widely claimed that the parents strongly affect the academic performance of their children. For instance, research which has been conducted on parenting practices shows that the parents’ involvement in their children’s education and the monitoring of their after-school activities (monitoring the completion of homework, supervising activities with peers, and checking on school progress) may help their children’s achievement and educational attainment, though the involvement decreases during the middle school years (Spera, 2005:141). Parental styles have been found to influence the children’s educational outcomes, and also the lowering of school dropout rates, rather than the more specific activities of parental involvement, e.g., household rules, or the parents’ attendance of and participation in school functions (Blondal & Adalbjarnardottir, 2009:743; Jeynes, 2007:100). Kazmi, Sajjid and Pervez (2011:584) concluded that different types of parenting styles are practiced at home, and these styles influence the academic achievements of the children at school.

Parenting style and ethnicity

As the research findings indicated, the effect of parenting styles vary in different ethnic and demographic groups owing to the different cultural traditions, norms and contextual factors found among the people (Mandara, in Bouffard & Stephen, 2007:4). Chao (1994:1116) investigated parental control and an authoritarian parenting style through the cultural notion of training, to understand Chinese parenting. Standard measures of parental control, an authoritative parenting style, an authoritarian parenting style and Chinese child-rearing items that are relevant to the concept of ‘training’ were given to immigrant Chinese and European-American mothers of preschool children. The study was based on the standard measures scale for parental control and authoritarian parenting styles. The findings indicated that Chinese mothers tended to score significantly higher on the measures of parental control and an authoritarian parenting style than European-American mothers. They did not, though, score significantly higher than European-American mothers on the authoritative parenting style scale. It was also found that Chinese mothers scored significantly higher than European-American mothers on a Chinese child-rearing ideologies scale.

TABLE OF CONTENTS :

  • Page
  • DECLARATION
  • DEDICATION
  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
  • SUMMARY
  • CHAPTER 1: ORIENTATION TO THE STUDY
    • 1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
    • 1.2 INVESTIGATION OF THE PROBLEM
    • 1.3 THE PROBLEM STATEMENT
    • 1.4 THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
    • 1.5 THE IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY
    • 1.6 THE RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
      • 1.6.1 The research paradigm
      • 1.6.2 The research design
      • 1.6.3 The subjects
      • 1.6.4 The research instrument
      • 1.6.5 The method of data analysis
    • 1.7 DEMARCATION OF THE STUDY
    • 1.8 CLARIFICATION OF THE CONCEPTS
      • 1.8.1Parenting style
    • 1.8.2Self-regulated learning (SRL)
    • 1.9 THE RESEARCH PROGRAMME
    • 1.10 CONCLUSION
  • CHAPTER 2: THE THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK OF PARENTING STYLE AND SRL
    • 2.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 2.2 PARENTING STYLES
      • 2.2.1 The nature of parenting styles
      • 2.2.2 Types of parenting styles
        • 2.2.2.1 Authoritarian parents
        • 2.2.2.2 Authoritative parents
        • 2.2.2.3 Indulgent parents
        • 2.2.2.4 Neglectful parents
  • 2.3 SELF-REGULATED LEARNING (SRL)
    • 2.3.1 The nature of SRL
    • 2.3.2 The social cognitive theory
    • 2.3.3 Models of SRL
    • 2.3.3.1 Zimmerman’s Social Cognitive Model of Selfregulation
    • 2.3.3.2 Pintrich’s Framework of SRL
    • 2.3.4 The four phases of Pintrich’s model
    • 2.3.4.1 The forethought, planning and activation phase
    • 2.3.4.2 The monitoring phase
    • 2.3.4.3 The control phase
    • 2.3.4.4 The reaction and reflection phase
    • 2.3.5 SRL strategies
    • 2.3.5.1 Cognitive strategies
    • 2.3.5.2 Meta-cognitive strategies
    • 2.3.5.3 Effort-regulation
  • 2.4 CONCLUSION
  • CHAPTER 3: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PARENTING STYLE, SELF-REGULATED LEARNING AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT
    • 3.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 3.2 PARENTING STYLE, SRL AND THE CHILDREN’S ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT
      • 3.2.1 Parenting style and academic achievement
      • 3.2.1.1 Parenting style and positive and negative influences on academic achievement
      • 3.2.1.2 Parenting style and ethnicity
      • 3.2.1.3 Parenting style, socio-economic status and adolescent functioning
      • 3.2.2 Parenting styles and SRL
      • 3.2.3 Parenting style, SRL and academic achievement
    • 3.3 SRL AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT
    • 3.4 SRL AS A MODERATOR OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PARENTING STYLE AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT
    • 3.5 CONCLUSION
  • CHAPTER 4: THE RESEARCH DESIGN
    • 4.1 INTRODUCTION
    • 4.2 SPECIFIC RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND HYPOTHESES
    • 4.3 THE RESEARCH DESIGN
      • 4.3.1 The quantitative approach
      • 4.3.2 The population
      • 4.3.3 Sampling
      • 4.3.4 The data-collection instrument
      • 4.3.4.1 The parenting style questionnaire
      • 4.3.4.2 The questionnaire on Self-regulated Learning (SRL)
      • 4.3.4.3 Academic achievement
      • 4.3.5 The data-collection procedure
      • 4.3.6 Ethical issues in data-collection
  • CHAPTER 5: THE RESULTS AND DISCUSSION OF THE RESULTS
  • CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND LIMITATIONS

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