THE CONCERN ABOUT HIV/AIDS

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Chapter 2 Literature review

INTRODUCTION

According to Polit et al (2004:53, 124-139), a quantitative study is carried out within the context of prior knowledge. A detailed review of the literature provides the foundation on which the new knowledge will be based, and this is usually done before any data are collected. The same authors further stress that familiarity with the relevant research literature can assist in establishing the basis for a study that is significant, for example,for nursing. The literature study is thus the initial task for the majority of quantitative researchers. The literature review provides readers with the background necessary to understand the current knowledge on a topic and clarifies the importance of a new study. Literature reviews serve an integrating function and facilitate the accumulation of knowledge. In order to substantiate the study and provide a background with regard to the present knowledge of the topic, a literature review was carried out on some aspects related to HIV/AIDS. The following aspects will be dealt with: a historical overview,characterisation and virology of HIV/AIDS; causes and transmission; physical, mental and social consequences of HIV/AIDS; and prevention measures.

THE CONCERN ABOUT HIV/AIDS

Worldwide, and in particular within sub-Saharan Africa, HIV/AIDS is the epidemic that presents the major concern for governments and communities. This virus assumes a particularly powerful threat, as the large financial inputs by governments and corporations and the efforts undertaken by scientists have not yet led to a major breakthrough in terms of vaccines or medication to combat this virus. HIV/AIDS continues decimating populations. Statistical data are frightening and women are the victims or belong to the most vulnerable group in relation to AIDS.

HISTORICAL OVERVIEW

AIDS has as its etiologic agent the HIV virus, of which the origin at present is still unknown. This virus has placed the world in a desperate situation as regards its cure. According to Baptista and Gomes (2000:13), the history of human being is the history of the struggle against his own misery. Going back in time, one looks at a past permeated by disagreements and conflict, either against nature – after all, human being has confronted nature, rather than working side by side with it as might have been expected– or against himself. Wars, hunger, unfavourable weather and inclement diseases –above all infectious diseases, have attenuated and exhausted mankind in an overwhelming manner.
Baptista and Gomes (2000:14-15) point out that the first cases of HIV/AIDS were reported in 1981 by the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) of Atlanta in the United States, an American entity engaged in the control and investigation of new and already known diseases which affect the population. At the time, a number of cases of deaths by pneumocystosis (a type of pneumonia) started being registered amongst young male homosexuals in the city of Los Angeles. In June of that same year, the CDC published an article entitled “Pneumonia by pneumocystis, Los Angeles”, in which five cases of illness were reported. Soon after, the occurrence of a tumour, the Kaposi sarcoma, until then considered as rare, was registered amongst young male homosexuals, some of whom were victims of pneumocystosis. This was, therefore, the occurrence of something new, a serious deficiency of the defence mechanisms in this group of male homosexual individuals, which manifested itself through the appearance of infection and rare tumours in people who were otherwise apparently healthy.An investigation of the new epidemic was initiated. In August 1981. An American federal law was approved which made it compulsory to register all cases of the epidemic. Two months later, the CDC compiled and applied a questionnaire containing 500 questions,with the aim of trying to define the characteristic profile of the patients (Baptista &
Gomes 2000:14).

Chapter 1 Orientation to the study
1.1 INTRODUCTION 
1.2 BACKGROUND
1.3 SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PROVINCE OF LUANDA
1.4 PROBLEM STATEMENT 
1.5 OBJECTIVES 
1.6 ASSUMPTION
1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY FIELD
1.9 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 
1.10 POPULATION 
1.11 SAMPLE
1.12 DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENT
1.13 VALIDITY
1.14 RELIABILITY
1.15 DATA COLLECTION 
1.16 DATA ANALYSIS 
1.17 PRE-TESTING THE DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENT 
1.18 PERMISSION TO CONDUCT THE RESEARCH
1.19 DEFINITION OF TERMS
1.20 ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS 
1.21 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
1.22 LAYOUT OF THE STUDY
1.23 CONCLUSION
Chapter 2 Literature review
2.1 INTRODUCTION 
2.2 THE CONCERN ABOUT HIV/AIDS
2.3 HISTORICAL OVERVIEW
2.4 HIV/AIDS CHARACTERISATION AND VIROLOGY
2.4.1 Causes and transmission of HIV/AIDS
2.4.2 Causes of HIV infection
2.4.3 Transmission of HIV
2.5 CONSEQUENCES OF HIV/AIDS
2.5.1 Physical consequences
2.5.2 Psychological consequences
2.5.3 Social consequences
2.6 MEASURES TO PREVENT HIV/AIDS INFECTION
2.6.1 Barriers against the virus
2.6.2 Information, education and communication
2.6.3 Role of the authorities and/or government
2.7 CONCLUSION
Chapter 3 Research methodology
3.1 INTRODUCTION 
3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN
3.3 POPULATION
3.4 SAMPLE
3.5 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY FIELD 
3.6 PERMISSION TO CARRY OUT THE RESEARCH
3.7 DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENT
3.7.1 Validity
3.7.2 Reliability
3.8 PRE-TESTING THE DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENT 
3.9 DATA COLLECTION 
3.10 ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS 
3.11 DATA ANALYSIS
3.12 CONCLUSION
Chapter 4 Data analysis
4.1 INTRODUCTION 
4.2 DATA ANALYSIS 
4.3 RESULTS
4.3.1 Section 1: Biographical data
4.3.1.1 Age
4.3.1.2 Marital status
4.3.1.3 Educational level of respondents
4.3.1.4 Religion
4.3.1.5 Contraception
4.3.1.6 Wage/salary
4.3.1.7 Types of jobs performed
4.3.1.8 Relationship to the child that is ill
4.3.2 Section 2: Obstetric history
4.3.2.1 History of the pregnancy
4.3.2.2 Total number of biological children
4.3.2.3 Causes of death of children
4.3.2.4 Use of contraceptives during sexual intercourse
4.3.3 Section C: Knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases
4.3.3.1 Acquisition of sexually transmitted diseases
4.3.3.2 Condom
4.3.3.3 Human immune deficiency virus (HIV)
4.3.3.4 AIDS
4.3.3.5 Concern about AIDS
4.3.3.6 Preventing infection with HIV
4.3.3.7 HIV transmission from mother to child
4.3.3.8 Factors increasing the risk of HIV transmission
4.3.3.9 Physical appearance of full-blown AIDS
4.3.3.10 Cure for HIV/AIDS
4.3.3.11 Risk of being infected with HIV without knowing
4.3.3.12 Precaution to take when living with a person with HIV/AIDS
4.3.3.13 HIV tested
4.3.3.14 Vertical transmission of HIV
4.3.3.15 Prevention of HIV transmission from mother to child
4.4 CONCLUSION
Chapter 5 Results, conclusions and recommendations
5.1 INTRODUCTION 
5.2 OBJECTIVES 
5.3 RESULTS
5.3.1 Biographical information
5.3.2 Obstetric history
5.3.3 Knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases (STIs), Human Immune Deficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
5.4 CONCLUSIONS 
5.4.1 Biographical information
5.4.2 Obstetric history
5.4.3 Knowledge of STIs, HIV and AIDS
5.5 RECOMMENDATIONS 
5.6 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ADDITIONAL RESEARCH 
5.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
5.8 CONCLUSION
BIBLIOGRAPHY

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