THE EFFECTS OF ILLNESS AND DEATH ON HIV/AIDS ORPHANED CHILDREN

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CHAPTER TWO PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF HIV/AIDS ORPHANS

INTRODUCTION

In this chapter, the researcher will focus mainly on the psychosocial development of children and how this affects HIV/AIDS orphans whose home milieu, the primary environment of children is teeming with problems. In order to execute this task with a large measure of efficacy, the researcher will address the following issues of significance: The psychosocial theory, development of children, stages of development, the self concept, environment, and fostering psychosocial development through play, relationships and aggressive behaviour. All developmental support is directly or indirectly aimed at the psychological well-being or mental health of the person. According to Warr (in Sengendo and Nambi, 1997: 108) mental health has five components: affective well being (happiness), competence, internal locus of control, aspiration and integrated functioning or adjustment.Supporting children in reaching psychological well being always takes place in a specific social context. The environment plays a dominant role in the psychosocial development of children. The home serves as the basic environment in which the child’s development is enhanced. A healthy atmosphere at home is required for the total development of the child. If the child’s home environment is conducive, the child will be able to cope easily in other secondary environments such as school, church and the community.Dane and Levine (1994:21) stress the importance of human relationships and their consequences for individual development. A good relationship between parents and the children should play a dominant role in the psychosocial development of the children. It is also important for the parents to provide the children with the basic needs such as food, shelter, and most of all love. At school a positive relationship between the teachers and the learners also play a dominant role in the psychosocial development of learners. Teachers should be able to encourage learners to establish a healthy relationship among them, as such peer relationships should be emphasized. If a positive relationship has been established at home and continued at school it will be transferred further in the community. Thus, the different components of the environment, namely the home, school and community, play an important role in the psychosocial development of children. The roles played by these components are discussed in detail in this chapter.

Psychosocial theory

Donald et al. (1997:156) define psycho-social as: where individual psychological characteristics and social context are seen in continual interaction.” The results of this interaction are that the social context, including socio-economic conditions, ways of life and cultural patterns, have an important influence on how children develop. Conversely, people development also influence the environment. People have different views regarding development and needs in accordance with their social context. The eco-systemic perspective and the constructive perspective contribute to the researcher’s understanding of individual people in relation to their social context. According to these theories, the individual person and his or her social context are linked. The way people think, feel, behave and develop as individuals is linked to the social structures, forces and relationships which make up their environment. Development does not just happen to the people but is based on their active engagement with and exploration of their physical and social world (Donald et al., 1997:34 and 47). Psychosocial theory represents human development as a product of the interaction between individual (psycho) needs and abilities and societal (social) expectations and demand (Newman and Newman, 1995:39). According to Boy and Pine (1998: 1) psychosocial is a term applied to the behaviours exhibited by an individual, which have a social bearing either in origin or in outcomes. The vital link between the individual and the world is a key mechanism of development (Newman and Newman, 1995: 38).In order to preserve and protect its culture, each society encourages patterns of parenting, provides unique opportunities for education, and communicates values and attitudes towards basic domains of behaviour, including sexuality, intimacy and work
(Newman and Newman, 1995: 39). The family and according to some cultures, the nuclear family plays an important role in the preparation of children for entry into the society. Newman and Newman (1995:39) regards the family as an important agent because parents love their children without the qualification of good behaviour and an atmosphere of forgiveness and tolerance is embedded in this love. The experience of love protects children against the fear of rejection if they should fail. In the family they feel at home, safe and secured and they are able to be themselves. This implies a very special relationship between parents, who are the primary caregivers, and their children, Parents belong to their children and children belong to their parents and as such form an educational unit. When the family is referred to as a unit, it is implied that the family consists of a group of people who belong together because they are related and live under the same roof. The family’s mutual relations and dealings are inter alia characterized by intimacy,attachment, caring,warmth, understanding, good-humor, happiness, security and satisfaction. Liebenman and Fisher (1995: 101) argue that, although not with the same degree of intimacy as in the nuclear family, this unit can also be an extended family, by attaining common goals and shared participation in efforts to achieve common goals within its parameters. A healthy family life is characterized by its active educational influence, which implies an intimate affective relationship between parents and children and is characterized by the socially oriented goal of preparing the child for adulthood
(Du Toit, 2000:14).

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTORY ORIENTATION
1.1. Introduction 
1.2 Awareness of the problem 
1.3. Statement of the problem 
1.4. Demarcation of the field of study 
1.5. The aims and objectives of the investigation 
1.6. The method of research 
1.7. Data analysis 
1.8. Ethical consideration 
1.9. Definition and elucidation of concepts 
1.10. Conclusion 
1.11. Programme of investigation 
CHAPTER TWO PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN
2.1. Introduction 
2.2. Self concept 
2.3 Environment 
2.4. Fostering psychosocial development through play. 
2.5 Relationships 
2.6 Aggressive behaviour 
2.7 Conclusion 
CHAPTER THREE THE ROLE OF THE PARENTS ON THE BECOMING OF HIV/AIDS CHILDREN
3.1 Introduction 
3.2.1 Child-rearing 
3.3 Providing love and food 
3.4 Parents as positive role models for their children 
3.5 Parenting goals
3.6 Parent-child communication
3.7 Parental style of discipline 
3.8 Parent and schooling
3.9 Parents as supporters of the school efforts 
3.10 Parent-teacher relationship 
3.11 Parent-teacher-child relationship 
3.12 Strategies teachers can use to establish a climate conducive
to open communication with custodians
3.13 Conclusion
CHAPTER FOUR THE EFFECTS OF ILLNESS AND DEATH ON HIV/AIDS ORPHANED CHILDREN
4.1. Introduction 
4.2. Parental illness 
4.3. Children’s concept of death
4.4 Dealing with death 
4.5. Conditions associated with AIDS orphans and chronic illness
4.6 Responses for all AIDS affected children not AIDS orphans alone. 
4.7 Helping young children cope with death
4.8 Coping skills of children 
4.9. The psychological needs 
4.10 Care of orphans 
4.11 Parental loss to AIDS 
4.12 Some factors complicating the mourning of an AIDS –related death 
4.13 Parent child relationship 
4.14 Impact of HIV/AIDS on economy 
4.15 Conclusion 
CHAPTER FIVE RESEARCH DESIGN
5.1. Introduction 
5.2 The research problem 
5.3 Aims of the empirical study 
5.4 Research paradigm 
5.5 Research method 
5.6 Research tools 
5.7 Selection of the sample 
5.8 Ethical aspects 
5.9 Ex post facto research
5.10 Collection of data 
5.11 Validity
5.12 Reliability 
5.13 The pilot study 
5.14 Data analysis 
5.15 Conclusion 
CHAPTER SIX ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSIONS OF RESULTS
6.1 Introduction 
6.2 Hypotheses 
6.3 Results 
6.4 Conclusion 
CHAPTER SEVEN FINDINGS, CONCLUSION, LIMITATIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS, IMPLICATIONS, SUGGESTIONS, FOR FUTURE RESEARCH AND CONCLUDING REMARKS
7.1 Introduction 
7.2 Statement of the problem 
7.3 Demarcation of the field of study 
7.4 Aims of the investigation 
7.5 The method of research 
7.6 Findings
7.7 Conclusion 
7.8 Recommendations 
7.9 Suggestions for future research 
7.10 Concluding remarks 
Bibliography 
Appendix A Questionnaires – teachers and orphans 
Appendix B Permission letters

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THE EFFECT OF ORPHANHOOD ON THE PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF PRE-PRIMARY AND PRIMARY SCHOOL LEARNERS

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