THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION HEALTHY WORKPLACE MODEL

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CHAPTER 3 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK OF THE RESEARCH

INTRODUCTION

This chapter discusses the theoretical framework drawing on the World Health Organization (WHO) healthy workplace model which informs this study. The chapter outlines the components of the WHO healthy workplace model and explains the model’s application to the current study. Furthermore, the steps for continuous improvement process to sustain the healthy workplaces and co-principles for the success of the healthy workplaces initiative is described in this chapter.

THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION HEALTHY WORKPLACE MODEL

The WHO healthy workplace model was developed for use in the WHO member states’ workplaces in order to maintain global worker health and safety. The development of the WHO healthy workplace model aimed at protecting and promoting the health, safety and well-being of workers through an on-going improvement process that seeks to sustain the healthy workplace programme (Burton 2010:4).
In 1995 the WHO approved a Global strategy on occupational health for all (WHO 2010:6), which requires all member states to adhere to the promotion of health and safety at work. The World Health Assembly also endorsed the Global Plan of Action (GPA) on Workers Health in May 2007 in order for its member states to put up strategies that promote workers’ occupational health and safety and to develop a global framework on healthy workplaces that would guide employers and workers for the period 2008-2017 (Burton 2010:13). The member states proposed to develop a healthy workplace model for the benefit of workers’ mental, physical and social health as well as the benefit of the organisations with regard to increasing productivity (Burton 2010:7). The proposed model was developed in a way that allowed for a continuous evaluation and improvement of various workplaces by member states (Burton 2010:89).
Consequently, the WHO healthy workplaces model was developed as a paradigm shift from the occupational health labour approach to the public health approach, which covers the occupational health and safety of worker’s families and communities and considers all determinants of health (Harrison & Dawson 2016:145). In fact, the WHO healthy workplaces model is a combination of a health protection and health promotion initiative for all workers’ categories, such as the self-employed, permanent, casual and temporarily recruited workers (Burton 2010:16). This model requires all stakeholders, such as employers and workers to promote health and prevent occupational accidents, injuries, diseases and fatalities at work (WHO 2010:15).
The WHO healthy workplace model was adopted for the current study as it addresses a number of worker health and safety aspects at workplaces. The WHO healthy workplace model acknowledges that a working environment can have a detrimental effect on workers (WHO 2010:6). It notes further that workers’ needs should be addressed to attain complete occupational health and safety of the workers’ physical, psychosocial and psychological needs (Burton 2010:15). As a result, an application of the WHO healthy workplace model can promote the health and safety of workers and prevent occupational accidents, injuries and diseases (Bollo 2011:95).

Justification for using the World Health Organization healthy workplace model

This researcher chose the WHO healthy workplace model for this study in order to use it as a framework to address the current health and safety status of the construction industries in Namibia and develop the practical guidelines for the promotion of OHS in the construction industry. In addition, the WHO healthy workplace model is comprehensive in addressing the workers’ physical and psychological wellbeing (Burton 2010:83). Furthermore, the model was applied to address community involvement and advocate for the organisations’ corporal and social responsibilities (WHO 2010:18) by adhering to the regulatory framework and preventing environmental pollution and degradation arising from the construction activities. In fact, the model is relevant for the current study as it focuses on maintaining health and safety in the construction industry, for as Burton (2010:25) states, the community or the environment can affect the workers’ performance.
The WHO healthy workplace model is also ideal for this study because it addresses the importance of workers’ involvement in decision-making, which ensures the success of a programme. In fact, workers and their representative should give their opinions and their ideas should be implemented and respected (Burton 2010:62). This applies to the focus of this study because the practical guidelines developed are based on the participant’s views and the study results on the construction industry’s OHS improvement.
The model highlights the need for a continuous evaluation of the occupational health and safety strategies in order to check for any improvements or when necessary to change to other strategies which promote workers’ health and safety at work (WHO 2010:20). It is envisaged that the use of the WHO healthy workplace model will provide employers and construction workers the guidance on how to comply with the model because of its comprehensiveness, which will also lead to proper management of workplaces in accordance with the terms of OHS promotion (Gϋrcanlו, Bardan & Uzun 2015:60). As a result, this will promote occupational health and safety in Windhoek’s construction industry. The benefit of the WHO healthy workplace model is that it can be applied in any workplaces with positive results (Burton 2010:11). Furthermore, it is envisaged that the chosen model will assist the construction workers, irrespective of age, gender, educational status or ethnic background, in the prevention of occupational health and safety-related challenges (WHO 2010:11).
An application of the aspects of the WHO healthy workplace model organization should comply with the laws and legislations applicable in Namibia in order to maintain the workers’ health and safety and prevent legal action by the regulative body of the countries (Burton 2010:6). In fact, the WHO healthy workplace model calls for collaboration between the employers and workers (WHO 2010:12). Workers should be included in the decision making processes pertaining to OHS (Burton 2010:47). Furthermore, organisations can be successful in achieving their OHS goals by setting up healthy workplaces programmes that are relevant to the needs of the workers and ensure that workers are psychologically and physically healthy (Burton 2010:6).
Therefore, this model was chosen with the objective of achieving an effective outcome towards the promotion of occupational health and safety in the construction industry in Windhoek, Namibia. The model is used, with an awareness that the negative impact caused by occupational accidents, injuries and diseases may affect the workers physically and emotionally (Muiruri & Mulinge 2014:1). Occupational health and safety challenges demotivate construction workers as they fear for their quality of life (Kielblock 2012:21). Therefore, it is envisaged that construction workers will be motivated and feel supported by the management through an implementation of the developed practical guidelines based on the study outcome and WHO healthy workplace model. In addition, the motivation of workers leads to an increase in productivity, less OHS challenges and low staff turnover (WHO 2010:9).

Components of the WHO healthy workplace model

The WHO healthy workplace model is made up of four components seeking to promote OHS at workplaces globally by emphasising the need for employers and workers to integrate for the improvement of the occupational health and safety in the organisation, and thereby improve productivity, efficiency and competitiveness (see figure 3.1) (WHO 2010:12). The components are, physical work environment, psychosocial work environment, personal health resources and enterprise community involvement (WHO 2010:12).
Figure 3.1 illustrates the components of the WHO healthy workplace model. The components are overlapping and as all components should be integrated in order to achieve a safe working environment. Furthermore, any defect of each component will cause an OHS challenge in the organization (WHO 2010:14).

Physical work environment

“Physical work environment is the part of the workplace facility that can be detected by human or electronic senses, including the structure, air, machines, furniture, products, chemicals, materials and processes that are present or that occur in the workplace, and which can affect the physical or mental safety, health and well-being of workers” (Burton 2010:84). The WHO healthy workplace model acknowledges that there are different hazards in the physical work environment which may affect the physical or mental health and safety of the workers (Burton 2010:28). The different hazards may be physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic, mechanical or mobile (WHO 2010:14). The physical work environment in the construction industry context such as heat stress is known to affect productivity, increase occupational injuries and result in fatalities as a result of heat illness (Yi & Chan 2013:104). Furthermore, a nonconductive physical working environment negatively affects the motivation, satisfaction, health and performance of workers (Badayai 2012:486).
The physical health environment component explains the organization of the work environment in relation to OHS issues, such as the availability of the OHS programme at the construction sites, which enable the implementation of an OHS programme that prevents occupational accidents, diseases, injuries and fatalities (Burton 2010:84). The model advocates for the identification of hazards at workplaces and taking action to eliminate or mitigate hazards, which ultimately prevents hazard exposures (WHO 2010:15). Furthermore, the model underlines hazard recognition, hazard control through a hierarchy of controls that includes elimination or substitution, engineering controls, administrative controls and the use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) (WHO 2010:15).
Literatures note that the health status and ill-health of workers is determined by the work environment (Bambra, Gibson, Sowden, Wright, Whitehead & Petticrew; Petticrew 2009:453). By implication, a healthy physical workplace environment leads to good job performance because workers will feel motivated (Burton 2010:35). On the contrary, an unsuitable workplace environment causes low productivity and less job satisfaction (Badayai 2012:486).
The physical work environment aspect links well with this study as it is known that construction workers are exposed to physical hazards which may affect their health, concentration and attention negatively and result in occupational accidents and diseases (Badayai 2012:488). Furthermore, the physical work environment for construction workers is crucial as the construction industry workers are mostly exposed to extreme weather conditions, such as the heat or cold temperatures, as its activities are conducted outdoor (Alshebani & Wedawatta 2014:634).
This study’s data regarding the physical working environment was gathered through questionnaires and a site inspection checklist. The gathered data focused on the availability and implementation of OHS programmes on construction sites, availability of the OHS programme, risk assessment and hazard identification, work equipment safety, electrical safety and emergency preparedness. The implementation of an OHS programme is necessary for the promotion of OHS in the construction working environment as it compels the employers in particular and workers to identify, control or eliminate hazards. Furthermore, workers should also be trained on OHS to create an awareness of the occupational health and safety challenges, and the need for prevention and the maintenance of OHS at workplaces (Mahmoudi et al 2014:128). Finally, OHS officers, OHS committee and OHS representatives should also be nominated to enforce OHS programmes at workplaces (Badayai 2012:486).

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Psychosocial work environment

This component emphasises the importance of the organisational culture, values, attitudes and work practices that affect the mental and physical well-being of workers (WHO 2010:15). It was observed that worker exposure to psychosocial hazards such as harassment, discrimination, long working hours, stress and poor communication with employers affects the health status of the workers in severely negative way (Burton 2010:86). The WHO healthy workplace model calls for a psychosocial hazards identification by means of workplace surveys or interviews with workers (WHO 2010:16). Accordingly, the WHO healthy workplace model (WHO 2010:16) outlines how some of the hazards should be addressed as shown below:
• Reallocation of work to reduce workload in cases of long working hours or work overload.
• Establishment and implementation of workplace anti-harassment and anti-discrimination policy.
• Management support and proper communication between employers and workers.
In addition, the work environment should be assessed for psychosocial indicators such as common mental health disorders and stress in order to implement relevant strategies, which seek to address the psychosocial hazards (Boschmana et al 2013:749). A study by Bambra et al (2009:455) indicates the relationship between the psychosocial work environment, health status and work related stress, and argues that a person in a non-conducive working environment is at risk of developing healthy problems including work-related stress which may leads to depression. In addition, failure of the management to involve workers in decision making causes depression (Boschman et al 2013:748). Hence, the workers’ psychosocial health should be respected because any psychosocial problems may cause physical problems or loss of concentration and predispose a person to occupational injuries/ accidents (Burton 2010:85).
Construction workers in Namibia are no exception to psychosocial hazards as they are also exposed to such hazards in their workplaces and this mostly attributed to their nomadic style of their work (Boschman et al 2013:752). The incidence of occupational mental health disorders in the Netherlands construction industry increased from 11.2% in 2007 to 16.1% in 2010 (Netherlands Centre for Occupational Diseases cited in Boschman et al 2013:749). Therefore, construction workers should be educated on how to prevent psychosocial problems such as stress (Bambra et al 2009:455).

Personal health resources

The WHO healthy workplace model defines personal health resources as “the health services, information, resources, opportunities, flexibility and otherwise supportive environment an enterprise provides to workers to support or motivate their efforts to improve or maintain healthy personal lifestyles, as well as to monitor and support their physical and mental health” (WHO 2010:16). The personal health resources aspects include the provision of information to workers on how to maintain healthy lifestyles, provision of flexible break time and that of medical services (WHO 2010:17).
Furthermore, the model (WHO 2012:18) states that in order for the employer to address the personal health resources at workplaces, they should ensure that the following measures are in place:
• Provision of medical services at work for early detection of diseases.
• Provision of information on health-related behaviours such as hygiene, exercise, rest, diet and sleep.
• Training of workers on disease prevention and occupational health and safety promotion.
• Provision of financial support for wellness activities e. G. gym fee.
• Development and implementation of policy supporting healthy lifestyles.
• Provision of subsidised healthy food choices in cafeterias and vending machines at workplaces.
• Development and enforcing no-smoking policies in the workplace.
Encouraging workers to engage in a healthy lifestyle increases their health awareness, prevents absenteeism and increases job productivity. Therefore, the provision of different services tailoring healthy workplaces helps workers to make informed choices about health promoting behaviours (WHO 2010:18).

Enterprise community involvement

The WHO (2010:18e) states that “enterprise community involvement refers to the activities that an enterprise might engage, or expertise and resources it might provide, to support the social and physical wellbeing of a community where it operates”. The enterprise community involvement aspect explores the organisation’s relationship with the community and how the organisations assist the families and community with corporal responsibilities. The World Health Organization (WHO 2010:19) identifies the examples of services that enterprises can provided as:
• Pollution emissions control.
• Initiating clean-up operations.
• Implementation of gender equality policies within the workplace to protect and support women.
• Establishment and implementation of anti-discrimination policies to protect vulnerable groups.
• Subsidiisng public transportation and bicycles or the provision of worker transport to and from work.
This aspect was applied to this study in the assessment of waste management training in order to prevent environmental damage as well as the provision of transport to and from work. Furthermore, the study findings guided the researcher in the development of the practical guidelines seeking to improve OHS in the construction industry.

Continual improvement process to promote healthy workplaces

The development of the WHO healthy workplaces model integrates the organisational process of « continual improvement » which ensures that a health, safety and well-being programme meets the needs of all concerned and is sustainable over time. The continual improvement process follows steps that lead to the development of a healthy workplaces’ programme, the sustainability and effectiveness of healthy workplaces programmes (WHO 2010:20; Burton 2010:89).
An organisation’s success is ensured by the implementation of a healthy workplace programme and that of a systematic process for continuous improvement. The eight steps for continual process include components/elements such as: Mobilise, Assemble, Assess, Prioritise, Plan, Do, Evaluate and Improve (WHO 2010:20). The elements described here were adapted in order to develop practical guidelines that aim to promote OHS on Namibian construction sites.
Step 1: Mobilise
The WHO healthy workplaces model acknowledges the collection of information about peoples’ needs, values and priority in order to mobilise workers, stakeholders and employers to prepare for a change (WHO 2010:20). Furthermore, mobilisation should be done before the implementation of healthy workplace model in an attempt to get the support and opinion of stakeholders such as trade unions (Burton 2010:89). Management commitment and support for the implementation and sustainability of the healthy workplaces programme should be continually demonstrated (Burton 2010:90). Therefore, mobilisation assists the workers and employers to feel ownership of a healthy workplaces programme (Burton 2010:89; WHO 2010:20).
Step 2: Assemble
During this step, workers and resources are assembled to ensure the preparation for the changes needed in the implementation of healthy workplaces programmes (Burton 2010:90). The health and safety committee and OHS representatives should take a lead in communicating with workers and the management on issues pertaining to a healthy workplace (WHO 2010:21). In addition, the committee members or OHS representatives should be appointed from different job categories and all genders so that all sectors and categories are represented (WHO 2010; Burton 2010:89).
Step 3: Assess
The WHO healthy workplace model recommends an assessment of the situation regarding workers and the organisation. This includes an assessment of short term and long term OHS plans (Burton 2010:91). The situational analysis could be done in the form of a survey, an audit, inspection and focus group discussions. In addition, the gap identification should be done and goals set according to the outcome of the assessment (Burton 2010:91).
The collected information should include the demographic information, work-related disability, work-related illnesses and injuries, organisational productivity, staff turnover and risk assessment outcomes (WHO 2010:21). The management should also benchmark with similar organsations to check for similarities and learn lessons from good practices. A survey of workers asking for opinions on how the health at the workplace could be improvement is also of importance (WHO 2010:21; Burton 2010:90).
Step 4: Prioritise
An identification of gaps is followed by a setting up of priorities according to the given criteria (Burton 2010:92). The magnitude of the identified problem, cost for implementation and the potential outcome of the problem should be prevented (WHO 2010:22). Workers should be involved and their opinions should be considered.
Step 5: Plan
According to the WHO (2010:22), a comprehensive plan of OHS consisting of short term and long term plans should be set up. The plan should include the timeframe and responsible persons for certain tasks. Furthermore, the budget required for each task should be stated (WHO 2010:22).
Step 6: Do
This step requires the OHS interventions to be implemented by both the employer and workers in accordance with the plan’s allocated responsibilities. In addition, a follow up should be conducted to ensure a successful implementation of the plan (WHO 2010:22).
Step 7: Evaluate
Evaluation is important to determine what has gone well and what has not. Short term and long term outcomes should be evaluated through surveys and audits to compare the results from baseline investigations (WHO 2010:23). The management should also talk to the workers to hear their views on the implemented programme (WHO 2010:23).
Step 8: Improve
The post evaluation results would tell if an improvement is needed to correct problems. If there is an improvement, workers should be commended and congratulated for a job well done (WHO 2010:25). However, if there is no improvement, the process starts again to ensure the achievement of a healthy workplace model (WHO 2010:25).

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Co-principles of healthy workplace

A successful healthy workplace can be achieved through the consideration of key co-principles together with components of the WHO healthy workplace model (WHO 2010:26). The key co-principles are on the centre of the model (see figure 3.1) and these are: leadership, commitment and engagement, workers and representative involvement and organisation ethics and values.

Leadership commitment and engagement

The model highlights the need for management support and commitment in the integration of healthy workplace programmes into the organisation’s mission, values and goals (WHO 2010:26). The management’s commitment should also lead to the setting of the budgeting for a healthy workplace programme. The management’s commitment also leads to the authorisation and development of a healthy workplace policy that should be signed by the most senior person in the organisation (Ling, Liu & Woo 2009:724).
Furthermore, the healthy workplace policy should be communicated to all workers and accessible to all workers in the organisation. Information should be shared between the management and workers for the latter to be involved from the beginning (WHO 2010:26). Hence, this study assesses the availability of OHS programmes at different construction sites in Windhoek, Namibia in accordance with the WHO healthy workplace model. The study’s results were later used in the development of practical guidelines for the promotion of OHS in Namibia’s construction industry.

Workers and representative involvement

Workers, their representatives and union leaders should be involved in each step of healthy workplace process in order to achieve a successful healthy workplace implementation strategy. In addition, workers’ views should be noted, respected and considered for implementation (WHO 2010:26). Workers should be informed about their health and safety responsibilities, and the importance of preventing accidents and fatalities at work (WHO 2010:26). The study results from the questionnaires used during the study were applied in the development of practical guidelines. This shows the application of this aspect to the current study as the practical guidelines were developed on the basis of the study results.

Organisation ethics and values

The model stresses that management’s support should be based on core values of the organisation and a consideration of professional ethics (WHO 2010:26). Workers and their representatives’ involvement should be strengthened to monitor the progress of the programme and in identifying gaps. All the components of the model should be integrated for a healthy workplace sustainability (WHO 2010:27). In this context, the WHO healthy workplace model provides the theoretical framework for this study basing on construction site managers’ willingness to work according to the values and ethics of the organisations in order to promote OHS among construction workers.

CONCLUSION

The chapter focused on the WHO healthy workplace model which is the foundation for this study. The chapter described the components of the WHO workplace model and showed how it should be integrated in OHS programme for a positive outcome with regard to the prevention of occupational diseases, accidents, injuries and fatalities in the construction industries. The chapter also discussed why a continual improvement process that promotes healthy workplaces and healthy workplaces co-principles should be integrated with the components to attain healthy workplaces.
The next chapter outlines the research methodology used in this study.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1 ORIENTATION TO THE STUDY
1.1 INTRODUCTION
1.2 BACKGROUND INFORMATION ABOUT THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
1.3 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
1.4 AIM OF THE STUDY
1.5 HYPOTHESES
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
1.7 DEFINITIONS AND OPERATIONALISATION OF KEY CONCEPTS
1.8 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
1.9 RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
1.10 DATA MANAGEMENT AND ANALYSIS
1.11 ETHICAL CONSIDERATION
1.12 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
1.13 CHAPTER OUTLINE
1.14 CONCLUSION
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 INTRODUCTION
2.2 LITERATURE SEARCH METHOD
2.3 LITERATURE FINDINGS REGARDING THE SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF CONSTRUCTION WORKERS
2.4 LITERATURE FINDINGS REGARDING THE CONSTRUCTION WORKERS’ AWARENESS AND THE EXISTENCE OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY
2.5 LITERATURE REVIEW FINDINGS ON OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDS IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY
2.6 LITERATURE REVIEW FINDINGS REGARDING OCCUPATIONAL ACCIDENTS IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY
2.7 LITERATURE REVIEW FINDINGS REGARDING OCCUPATIONAL INJURIES IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY
2.8 PREVALENCE OF OCCUPATIONAL ACCIDENTS, INJURIES AND FATALITIES IN THE NAMIBIAN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY
2.9 LITERATURE REVIEW FINDINGS ON OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH PROBLEMS IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY
2.10 LITERATURE REVIEW FINDINGS REGARDING OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY LEGISLATION PROVISION IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY
2.11 CONCLUSION
CHAPTER 3 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK OF THE RESEARCH
3.1 INTRODUCTION
3.2 THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION HEALTHY WORKPLACE MODEL
3.3 CONCLUSION
CHAPTER 4 RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
4.1 INTRODUCTION
4.2 RESEARCH DESIGN
4.3 RESEARCH METHOD
4.4 VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY
4.5 CONCLUSION
CHAPTER 5 DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION OF RESEARCH FINDINGS
5.1 INTRODUCTION
5.2 DATA MANAGEMENT AND ANALYSIS
5.3 RESULTS FROM DATA OBTAINED THROUGH THE SITE INSPECTION CHECKLIST
5.4 RESULTS FROM PARTICIPANTS’QUESTIONNAIRES
5.5 FINDINGS FROM A REVIEW OF DOCUMENTS ABOUT OCCUPATIONAL ACCIDENTS AND INJURIES AT CONSTRUCTION SITES
5.6 CONCLUSIONS
CHAPTER 6 DISCUSSION ON THE RESEARCH FINDINGS
6.1 INTRODUCTION
6.2 DISCUSSION ON FINDINGS
6.3 DISCUSSION ON FINDINGS FROM THE SITE INSPECTIONS
6.4 DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS FROM QUESTIONAIRE
6.5 FINDINGS FROM DOCUMENT REVIEW
6.6 CONCLUSION
CHAPTER 7 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, LIMITATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE STUDY
7.1 INTRODUCTION
7.2 SUMMARY
7.3 RECOMMENDATIONS
7.4 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
7.5 CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE STUDY
7.6 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
7.7 CONCLUDING REMARKS
CHAPTER 8 PRACTICAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PROMOTION OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY IN WINDHOEK, NAMIBIA
8.1 INTRODUCTION
8.2 THE PURPOSE OF THE GUIDELINES
8.3 THE SCOPE AND OBJECTIVES OF THE GUIDELINES
8.4 THE PROCESS OF DEVELOPING PRACTICAL GUIDELINES
8.5 APPLICATION OF THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION HEALTHY WORKPLACE MODEL TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE GUIDELINES
8.6 OUTLINE OF THE PRACTICAL GUIDELINE
8.7 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE DEVELOPED PRACTICAL GUIDELINES
8.8 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE EVALUATION OF THE DEVELOPED GUIDELINES
8.9 IMPLICATIONS FOR THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRIES IN NAMIBIA
8.10 IMPLICATIONS FOR THE GOVERNMENT
8.11 DISSEMINATION OF DEVELOPED GUIDELINES
8.12 CONCLUSION
LIST OF REFERENCES
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